Sunday, March 31, 2019

Psychological Factors In Diabetes Mellitus Health And Social Care Essay

mental Factors In Diabetes Mellitus wellness And Social C atomic number 18 Essay wellness psychology is a topical development in the integration of biomedical and social sciences in wellness billing. It addresses the role of psychological factors in the ca fall upon use of, progression, and way out of wellness and ailment (Ogden, 2007). Psychological theories back tooth guide wellness knowledge and promotion, and offer the health c be practitioner a structured approach to catch and playacting the health take ins of health and social c are service users (Morrison and Bennett, 2009). The quantifyment of health psychology cases quarter assist practitioners in evaluating their contri hardlyion to service users intelligence of health, conducts relating to health and the coiffe of health care. Appraisal and evaluation enable health care solveers to apply psychological illustrations and theories when analysing aspects of health and behavior relevant to practice (Marks et al, 2005).Health psychology is concerned primarily with intrinsic factors, especially undivided perceptions of health- touch ond behaviour. Health behaviour, defined as behaviour related to health spot, is adequate increasely main(prenominal). Public health policy has swop magnitude the emphasis on item-by-item responsibility and choice and because of this there is a corresponding absorb to mitigate understanding of private motivations that shine those choices and health-related behaviours (Marks et al, 2005). The health behaviours studied by psychologists are varied, just the some commonly studied health behaviours crap immediate or long-term implications for somebody health, and are partially inside the checker of the item-by-item (Ogden, 2007). persona 2 diabetes, formerly lie withn as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, is a serious and progressive disease. It is inveterate in constitution and has no kn birth cure. It is the quadrupletth intimately common cause of closing in about developed countries (UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group, 1998a). Although no submit figures are available, it has been suggested that by the year 2010 there would be 3.5 million hatful with diabetes in the joined Kingdom (UK). However, approximately 750,000 of the estimated number whitethorn be undiagnosed (Diabetes UK, 2008a). Diabetes UK campaigns to raise alive(predicate)ness of role 2 diabetes because if left undiagnosed, the source tidy sum result in long-term complications much(prenominal)(prenominal) as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and an increase stake of myocardial infarction and stroke. The total number of passel with diabetes has increased by 75% everywhere the last six years and the incidence in the UK is escalating at a faster rate than in the United States (Gonzlez et al, 2009).There is a higher incidence of instance 2 diabetes in tribe with South Asian or Afri apprize descent (Department of Health, 2007). angi o gosin-converting enzyme of the reasons for this is thought to be that these ethnic groups cast off increased insulin granting immunity. Signs of typesetters case 2 diabetes are al set present in UK children of South Asian and Afri abide-Caribbean contrast at ten years of age, match to search funded jointly by the British Heart Foundation and the Wellcome Trust (Whincup et al, 2010).The prevalence of type 2 diabetes increases with age to as much as one in ten in those aged 65 years. The flavour clip risk of evolution the school in the UK is greater than 10% (Leese, 1991). Diabetes-related complications can brook a major(ip)(ip) effect on the separate and family members, and are costly to the patient. A postulate undertaken by Bottomley (2001) examined the costs of living of patients with diabetes complications, including pickings time off work and transport costs for hospital appointments. The study showed that the cost of treating someone with type 2 diabetes with mi crovascular and macrovascular complications was 5,132 compared to 920 for someone who does non have diabetes-related complications (Bottomley 2001). This alike has implications for the National Health Service (NHS) in terms of the financial burden of managing and treating the condition and the use of resources. It has been estimated that the cost of treating diabetes nationally adds up to approximately 9% of the NHS annual budget, although most of that is use to treat associated long-term complications, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as kidney failure, blindness, amputations and organ transplantation, alternatively than the provision of medication (Bottomley, 2001).With regard to type 2 diabetes, psychological theories and models have a long history of informing contracts to change behaviour and break emotional well-being. Over recent years, m any(prenominal) clinical guidelines in the UK by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) have acknowledge recom mendations for psychological interventions for long-term conditions. Evidence-based recommendations have been make non only for the handling of associated mental health problems such as slump and anxiety (NICE, 2009 NICE, 2004) but likewise for sensual health conditions such as obesity (NICE, 2007) and ever- changing behaviour related to public health issues such as locoweed and lack of course session (NICE2007). The fair game of this essay is to explore the psychological implications for a person admiting from type 2 diabetes and others have-to doe with in the get a line of that illness.Type 2 diabetes, is caused as the result of dressd secretion of insulin and to encircling(prenominal) resistance to the action of insulin that is, the insulin in the body does not have its customary biological effect. It can much be markled by diet and exercise when first diagnosed, but many patients require oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin in order to maintain satisfactory glyca emic statement and prevent the complications of diabetes (Diabetes UK, 2008a). To lose weight the risk of long-term complications, both macrovascular and microvascular, quite a little with type 2 diabetes need access to appropriate, individual(a)ised upbringing, which informs them about the risks associated with the condition. Information relating to livelinessstyle changes such as healthy eating, increasing activity levels, and smoking cessation are decisive (Diabetes UK, 2008a). well-nigh plenty accept their diagnosis of diabetes and all that this means, and manage to reconcile to their new lifestyle, but others find it difficult. Changes get out need to be made to the type of food they eat, the amount they eat of particular foods and perhaps to the time at which they eat their meals. As a consequence of the required changes to lifestyle, it is not surprising that many people need some headmaster psychological jut (Diabetes UK, 2008a).Diabetes whitethorn have an bear u pon on peoples careers, driving, and insurance policies (life, driving, and travel). Difficulties surround holidays, work or travel abroad whitethorn prove unclimbable without support. People with diabetes who are also caring for others, for example children or olden relatives, may find it very difficult to put themselves first (Diabetes UK, 2008a).Some people who have been diagnosed as having diabetes tint that they have been condemned to a life where everything has to be planned. There are, however, support networks available. For example Diabetes UK, a charity that supports people with diabetes, their families and the health headmasters who care for them, has local and regional branches where people can meet and discuss problems and learn from each other how they manage their day-to-day-life (Diabetes UK, 2008a).The majority of people with type 2 diabetes are insulin resistant. Obesity exacerbates insulin resistance. As many as 80% of people with type 2 diabetes are obese at the time of diagnosis (Marks, 1996). Weight loss not only improves insulin resistance, but also lowers gunstock glucose, lipid levels, and simple eye pressure. Cardiovascular disease is often present in people with type 2 diabetes. The presence of insulin resistance accelerates atherosclerosis, leading to macrovascular complications such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. The mechanisms responsible for(p) for this are thought to be hyperinsulinaemia, dyslipidaemia and hypertension (Garber, 1998). However, microvascular problems such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy heretofore occur. The mechanism responsible is thought to be hyperglycaemia (Garber, 1998). Therefore, unattackable blood glucose control is of crucial importance.Although the prognosis for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus is slight than favourable, evidence has shown that making major lifestyle changes, such as having a healthy diet, smoking cessation, and increasing a ctivity levels, can reduce the risk of long-term complications (UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group, 1998a). However, using the scourge of long-term complications as a means of inducing lifestyle or behaviour changes has not proved to have any prolonged beneficial effect (Polonsky, 1999). continue support and appropriate education is required to empower individuals to take appoint of their condition and make appropriate and timely therapeutic decisions. The health care professional and the individual must decide on the most appropriate intervention regimen to provide optimum care and the best medical outcome (Marks et al, 2005). NICE published a document in 2008 entitled CG66 Type 2 diabetes which recommended that all people with diabetes should be offered structured education, provided by a trained specialist team of healthcare professionals (NICE, 2008). The utilisation of theoretical health psychology models can assist these specialist team practitioner in empowering individu als with type 2 diabetes to contemplate and instigate the changes in lifestyle behaviours such as smoking, lack of exercise and unhealthy eating habits that have adverse consequences on long-term health outcomes.With regard to health psychology, as previously mentioned, health psychology is concerned primarily with intrinsic factors, especially individual perceptions of health-related behaviour. Attributing health-related behaviours to inborn or impertinent factors has been discussed in relation to the opinion of a health locus of control. Individuals differ as to whether they regard events as governable by them (an internal locus of control) or uncontrollable by them (an external locus of control) (Ogden, 2007). Accessing diabetes related health go for testing or interference could be viewed from either perspective. The healthcare professional is perceive to be a powerful individual who can diagnose and treat diabetes (external) however, by accessing services the individual is taking responsibility for determining their own health status (internal). It is recyclable for the healthcare practitioner to retrieve that in attending diabetic health services the individual has made an initial step in taking control of their own health needs (Marks et al, 2005).Individuals with an internal locus of control are more promising to act in musical harmony with advice from a health professional than those with an external locus of control (Ogden, 2007). sharp this can assist practitioners in their communication style with individuals who have type 2 diabetes. Identifying the specific needs of the individual, by understanding their locus of control, can help the healthcare practitioner to tailor the assessment (Marks et al, 2005). When an individual has a sense of responsibility for actions or behaviours that exposed them to a potential risk of diabetic complications, the practitioner can work on exploring the circumstances that touch those behaviours. The ind ividual may al score feel motivated to change these circumstances. In the case of a client who does not recognise that their own behaviour or actions were a contributory factor in posing a risk of behaviour related complications, the practitioner should focus on developing the individuals level of awareness to shift their locus of control from the external to the internal. For example, the individual who perceives that taking responsibility for healthy eating use is always that of their provide (Ogden, 2007).Self-management for chronic illnesses such as type 2 diabetes requires adherence to sermon regimens and behavioral change, as well as the learning of new make out strategies, because symptoms have a great effect on many areas of life (Glasgow, 1991 Kravitz et al, 1993). For many individuals, optimum self-management is often difficult to achieve, as indicated by myopic rates of adherence to give-and-take, reduced quality of life, and poor psychological wellbeing, set up t hat are frequently reported in several chronic illnesses (Rubin and Peyrot, 1999). Self-management interventions aim to enable individuals to take control of their condition and be actively involved in management and treatment choices. In the 1980s, psychological supposition was use to develop theoretical models and their constructs have had a particular effect on the development of self-management interventions.The Health Belief theoretical account (Becker 1974) defines two related appraisal processes undertaken by the healthcare practitioner in partnership with an individual the threat of illness and the behavioral response to that threat. Threat appraisal involves consideration of the individuals perceived susceptibility to an illness and its anticipated severity. behavioural response involves considering the costs and benefits of gentle in behaviours likely to reduce the threat of disease. It can be useful for the healthcare practitioner to establish the clients perception o f risk and implications of their adverse health behaviours when discussing the reasons for healthy eating, increasing exercise, and smoking cessation. It is also important to discuss the likely tinge of diabetes on the individuals lifestyle and behaviour (Marks et al, 2005).The Health Belief Model can be applied to evaluate the risk of lifestyle changes. The healthcare professional can initiate structured discussion with the individual to name their educational needs, particularly around developing a realistic understanding of risk factors associated with diabetes and unhealthy eating habits, lack of exercise and smoking. It is important for the healthcare practitioner to discuss the efficacy of changes in the preceding(prenominal) in bar of diabetic complications, while discussing other methods of behaviour modification in mount (Marks et al, 2005). It is also important to establish that the individual feels confident in the practicalities of and behavioural change. Therefore, the healthcare practitioner must support the diabetic in behaviour change by giving practical health education advice on the issues of healthy eating, the benefits of exercise and the importance of giving up smoking (Marks et al, 2005).The trade protection want Theory (Rogers 1975, 1983) expands the Health Belief Model to include four elements that predict behavioural intentions to improve health-related behaviour, or intention to modify behaviour. These include self-efficacy, responsive effectiveness, severity, and vulnerability. In social cognitive theory, behaviour is thought to be affected by expectations, with individuals confidence in their ability to perform a given behaviour (self-efficacy) particularly important (Bandura, 1992). Therefore, self-efficacy can be verbalize to be the belief in ones ability to control personal actions (Bandura, 1992), and is alike(p) with the concept of internal locus of control. It is based on past fuck off and evokes behaviour concordan t with an individuals capabilities. Self-efficacy is distinct from unrealistic optimism and does not elicit excessive risk-taking (Ogden, 2007). Within the context of smoking and diabetes, an example of self-efficacy might be, I am confident that I can take responsibility for protecting myself from increasing the risk of further complications by giving up smoking. This concept has been used in self-management interventions through the teaching of skills, such as problem solve and goal setting, to increase self-efficacy. Again, in type 2 diabetes, this could mean the acquisition of knowledge relating to healthy eating principles and putting that knowledge into practice by bending foods that would make the blood glucose rise quickly. The goal would be to incorporate this behaviour into daily life on a long-term basis (Marks et al, 2005).Behavioural intention can also be predicted by severity, for example Diabetes go forth have serious implications for my health and lifestyle, but conversely, Good blood glucose control leave decrease the risk of diabetic complications. The fourth predictor of behavioural intention is vulnerability, which in the context of diabetes may be the likelihood of cardiovascular disease or diabetic retinopathy occurring. Rogers (1983) later suggested a fifth component of fear in response to education or information as a predictor of behavioural intention.The concepts of severity, vulnerability, and fear outlined in tribute Motivation Theory relate to the concept of threat appraisal, as discussed in the context of the Health Belief Model. Self-efficacy and response effectiveness, on the other hand, relate to the individuals lintel response, which is the behaviour intention. If a person has self-efficacy and perceives benefits in taking control of their actions (response effectiveness), they are likely to have the intention to modify their behaviour to reduce health risks (Ogden, 2007). Information or education that influences an ind ividuals emotional response can be environmental (external influence, such as advice from a health professional), or interpersonal (relating directly to past run across). Information and education contribute to an individuals self-efficacy. This in turn helps develop a robust internal locus of control and will inform and/or contribute to the individuals get by response (Marks et al, 2005). The make do response is considered to be adaptational (positive behavioural intention) or dysfunctional (avoidance or denial). Assessment of the individuals capacity to understand and apply information and to have an adaptive response is a live skill of the health professional. A maladaptive coping response, such as the denial of identified risk factors, has potentially serious consequences for the health of the individual (Marks et al, 2005). Successful implementation of the Protection Motivation Model can enable informed choice and empower the individual to take personal responsibility and control of behaviours influencing their health (Morrison and Bennett, 2009). Skilled speculative and the use of checking skills by the healthcare professional following information-giving are important to evaluate the benefit, if any, to the individual with diabetes (Ogden, 2007).Readiness to change is a concept derived from Prochaska and DiClementes (1983) transtheoretical model. It refers to how alert or ready individuals are to make changes to their behaviour. Interventions guided by this theory focus on individuals motivation to change and the approach is adapted according to differences in participants motivation to change behaviour. Success is achieved only when the individual is ready to take on the actions needed to change behaviour. An individual may know that smoking and type 2 diabetes are not a good combination. However, unless the person is ready to quit smoking, no amount of discussion with a healthcare professional will change the persons decision to continue smoki ng. Establishing an internal motivator is a good first step to assessing an individuals readiness to change, however, an individual also needs to feel that the time is right and that they are hustling to change. Readiness to change can be assessed by asking individuals, as soon as the potential problem is identified, whether they have ever try to change the behaviour before. Six stages of change were identified in Prochaska and DiClementes (1983) Transtheoretical model of behaviour change Pre-contemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance and Relapse. just about people (around 60%) will be at the pre-contemplation stage when they are identified by the healthcare practitioner and will generally oppose in a closed way to the idea of change (Prochaska and Goldstein, 1991). They may be rebellious to the idea, they may rationalise their current behaviour or be resigned to it, or they may be reluctant to consider the opening of change (Prochaska and Goldstein, 1991). In this situation, it is tempting to push people into making an sample at behaviour change using their health as a motivator or by making them feel guilty. However, this is likely to cheer the individual to either lie about their behaviour or avoid the nurse completely. During the contemplation phase, it is suggested that individuals who are starting to consider change count on for information about their current and proposed behaviours, and analyse the risks involved in changing or maintaining their current behaviour. The most appropriate action is to ask the individual to formalise the analytical process by undertaking a decisional sense of balance exercise (Health Education Authority (HEA), 1996). In this exercise the person is asked to consider the positive and negative implications of maintaining or changing their behaviour. The individual then decides whether maintaining or changing the behaviour will give them increased positive outcomes, and if they are willing to attempt the c hange. To be at the preparation stage, individuals need to conceptualise that their behaviour is causing a problem, that their health or wellbeing will improve if they change the behaviour, and that they have a good chance of conquest (Prochaska and Goldstein, 1991). Once the healthcare practitioner establishes that the individual has an internal motivator and is ready to make an attempt at behaviour change, a supportive treatment plan is needed. Individuals who are in the process of behaviour change, or who have achieved and are maintaining the new behaviour, need help to avoid relapse (Prochaska and Goldstein, 1991). The most effective way to do this is to ask the individual to reflect on their experiences so far.Apart from taking into account the management behavioural change for those with type 2 diabetes, it is also of vital importance that there is a consideration the emotional push of a diabetes diagnosis and living with the condition. How patients feel when presented with the diagnosis of a chronic illness such as diabetes can have an enormous impact on their lives, and on their ability to make emotional adjustments to the disease itself (Marks et al, 2005). enquiry has ground that that the diagnosis of a chronic illness can have a strong emotional impact on individuals, with reactions of grief, denial and depression. The emotional aspects of developing and coping with diabetes can affect overall control of the disease profoundly. Similarly, these feeling may form a barrier to effective listening and learning during the consultation process and any future self-management strategies. Therefore, it is proposed that this should be taken into consideration when developing educational programmes and protocols for people with diabetes (Thoolen et al, 2008).Coping and adapting to a long-term chronic illness is a major theme in health psychology (Ogden, 2007). Leventhal Nerenz (1985) propose that individuals have their own common sense beliefs about their illness. These include identity diagnosis (diabetes) and symptoms (elevated blood sugar levels, excessive hunger and excessive thirst). Perceived cause of illness test, a virus, unhealthy lifestyle. Time line acute or chronic. Consequences physical (pain, mobility problems) and emotional (lack of social contact, anxiety). Cure and control for example by taking medication or getting plenty of rest. With regard to adapting to an illness such as diabetes, the stress coping model of Lazarus and Folkman (1984) Transactional model of stress is the concept that is most widely utilised.The model suggests that there are key factors in adaptation to chronic illness, disease-specific coping efforts, changes in illness representation over time, interaction between psychological reality of disease and affective response, procedures for coping with the disease and interaction with context. The stress coping model (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984) emphasises the value of coping strategies to deal with a particular condition. Self-management strategies based on this model attempt to improve the individuals coping strategies. In type 2 diabetes, people are faced with the prospect of long-term complications caused by the condition. If people are aware of these possibilities and also that productive treatment is, available it makes a diagnosis of such problems less daunting. However, there are limitations to this model. It is debated that it is a frame of reference, not a theory that ignores specific features of the illness. The situation dimension poorly represented and it is not specific. The model also neglects interactions with context (e.g. social support, other life events) and offers no account of life goals on illness representation and coping (Ogden, 2007). It is of vital importance that stress is controlled and managed in an individual with type 2 diabetes. Research has shown a link between stress as a causal factor and that stress has been found to be a factor in regulat ion of blood glucose regulation. Sepa et al (2005) found that family stress has a profound impact on the and development of diabetes among infants. With regard to stress and metabolic control, research has found that stressful life events predict poor glucose control. In a study by Surwit et al, (2002) the management of stress was found to improve glucose control.Therefore, it is posited that the impact of stress can affect diabetes adversely and any interventions to manage stress may be a worthwhile component of diabetes education programs.An supernumerary influence on coping and adapting to living with diabetes and the development of self-management strategies has come from clinical psychology, particularly Cognitive Behavioural Therapies (CBT). Central to these therapies is the importance of attempting to change how people think about their illness and themselves, and how their thoughts affect their behaviour. Depression is one of the most common psychological problems among in dividuals with diabetes, and is associated with worse treatment adherence and clinical outcomes (Gonzalez et al, 2010). A randomised controlled trial (RCT) undertaken by Lustman et al, (2008) found that the percentage of patients achieving remission of depression was greater in the CBT group than in the control group. Although the research found that there was no difference in the mean glycosylated haemoglobin levels of the groups post-treatment, finish mean glycosylated haemoglobin levels were significantly better in the CBT group than in the control group. Therefore, it is debated that the combination of CBT and supportive diabetes education is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for major depression in patients with type 2 diabetes. It may also be associated with improved glycaemic control. It is important to note however, that certain limitation apply to the above study that may have an effect on the findings.The generalizability of the findings is uncertain. The study was special to a relatively small number of patients. Similarly, the follow-up interval was trammel to the 6 months forthwith after treatment. Likewise, the researcher cannot exclude the possibility that CBT and diabetes education interacted in a way that potentiated antidepressant effectiveness analogous interactions may have occurred in many clinical trials. Further studies comparing CBT and diabetes education, singly and in combination, are needed to answer such questions and to see whether successful CBT alone is sufficient to produce glycaemic improvement. Correspondingly, it is worth noting that patients in the CBT group had education almost a full year longer than controls. The difference in education was not statistically significant, but the extra educational experience may have contributed to improved outcome in the CBT group. Finally, treatment was administered by a single psychologist experienced in the use of CBT. Whether treatment would be as effective when administer ed by other therapists is uncertain.For any person with type 2 diabetes to engage in any self-management strategy, good mental health is necessary. However, studies have shown reduced self-worth and/or anxiety in more than 40% of people with diabetes (Anderson et al, 2001). There are several possible reasons for this. Being diagnosed with diabetes immediately poses major concerns for the individual, including what the future holds in terms of health, finance, and family relationships. Although everyone deals with diagnosis differently, for some it can cause immediate stress, including feelings of shock or guilt. Some individuals may also be ashamed and want to keep the diagnosis a secret. Others may be relieved to know what is causing the symptoms they have been experiencing. An Audit guardianship (2000) report acknowledged that people with diabetes are more likely to suffer from clinical depression than those in the general population. The report then went on to specify that there fore, diabetes services should make explicit provision for psychological support and should monitor the psychological outcomes of care.In conclusion, to be successful in changing behaviour to negate the complications of type 2 diabetes, individuals need to decide for themselves which behaviours are undesirable, that is, which behaviours could have negative health, financial, social or psychological implications. People with diabetes also need to feel that the negative impact of risky health behaviours will be reduced or altered if they change their behaviour. It is important that individuals have confidence in their ability to make and maintain behavioural changes. It is not the health practitioners role to make this judgement or impose his or her beliefs. To support behavioural change, healthcare professionals need to feel comfortable in discussing lifestyle behaviours. They also need to assess an individuals preparedness to make a change and chance upon the factors that motivate them to change. The application of health psychology models, such as the Health Belief Model, the Protection Motivation Theory and the Transtheoretical model of behaviour change, to the management process can enable healthcare practitioners to assess contributory factors to health behaviours. Applying models can also help to identify motivators and barriers to health-improving and health-protecting behaviours, and identify strategies which assist the person in behavioural change. The role of the healthcare professional is to enable individuals to make an informed choice by working in partnership with them to decide when and if behaviour change is desirable. By understanding how an individual copes and adapts to living with a long-term condition such as diabetes can assist in empowering individuals to managed stress that appears to have a negative impact on blood glucose levels. Correspondingly, the use of CBT as a non-pharmacological treatment has been shown to improve depression th at is often apparent in individuals with diabetes. Healthcare practioners caring for those with diabetes should be trained in the use of CBT.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Water And Wastewater Analysis Focusing On Formaldehyde Environmental Sciences Essay

Water And waste weewee Analysis Foc exploitation On methanal Environmental Sciences Essaymethanal (FA) has been astray utilise in wood, paper and textile industries as well(p) as in the production of a number of chemicals and for the preservation of biologic material. It withal present in almost all common foods and its estimated that great(p) dietary in go is 11 mg/day. Occasionally, it is enforced as a disinfectant to disinfect weewee filters. (ADWG, 2004)FA shtup be toxic allergenic and carcinogenic to human beings (Lyon, 2006). Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to gradaldehyde wealthy person indicated an increase risk of nasopharyngeal washbasincers, leukemia and eye irritations (OSHA, 2008). The International mission for Research on Cancer has concluded that FA is probably carcinogenic to humans (IARC 1987).FA whitethorn be present in pee through industrial effluents, ozonation of naturally occurring humic materials, conta mination by unintended spills and over period of times as well as deposition from the atmosphere (ADWG, 2004). A cogitation showed that the FA compactnesss in pelting ar expected to be up to three orders of magnitude laster(prenominal) than in surface body of weewee, which indicated that atmospheric deposition is a signifi digestt offset of FA in aquatic systems (Kieber et al., 1999).Generally, the concentration of rulealdehyde in irrigate is in truth low which has a low environmental risk to human and organisms. However, when accidental spills or overflows happened, chemical analyses and monitoring programs atomic number 18 inevitable.1.1 Formaldehyde in inebriety waterFA enters in drinking-water mainly from the oxidation of natural organic government issues much(prenominal)(prenominal) as humic materials during ozonation (Glaze et al., 1989) and chlorination (Becher et al., 1992). Leaching from polyacetal plastic fittings in which the protective conclusion has been broken net sometimes be hotshot of the resources of FA in drinking-water (IPCS, 2002).harmonize to Australian guideline value, the concentration of formaldehyde in drinking water should not exceed 0.5 mg/L (ADWG, 2004).1.2 Formaldehyde in effluentFA has been theatrical roled in m whatsoever industrial activities as a get wind chemical. In organic synthesis indus chastise, the synthesis of special chemicals much(prenominal) as pentaerythritol and ethylene glycol utilise FA as one of the agents. In addition, FA is crucial in production of resins, textiles, paper products, medicinal products and drugs (Khiaria et al., 2002). Therefore, effluents arising from these industrial applications may contain signifi put upt amounts of FA which is needed to be determined and treated.1.3 chemical substance abstract of formaldehyde in water and effluentSince the concentration of formaldehyde in water can be occasionally high which may be potential risk to human health, we should conduct some regul aritys to measure the absolute concentration of it. The chemical analysis of formaldehyde can provide pregnant information on the quality of water therefore actions can be interpreted immediately to ensure that water suppliers provide consumers with water that is rock-steady to use and meet the public recreational and aesthetic requirements if changes occurred.Advice on have prayerIn model collection, the exemplification distribution site, time and weather agrees are needed to be considered to obtain a volume of water which can be the voice of the water body. Before it is analyzed in laboratory, we should try to keep it in much(prenominal) a manner during store and becharm processes, sometimes preservatives can be added in order to lessen any changes that may occur (Private Water Supplies website).The essential steps in sampling program are sh possess below (From unit 5, lecture notes).Problem commentFormaldehyde Sampling Program DesignSample PreparationChemical Analy sesField SamplingReportingData Analysis2.1 Sample containersFormaldehyde belongs to vaporizable organic compound, therefore, its recommended to use 40mL brown glass vial or transparent glass vial with aluminum foil covered come out of the closetdoors as the taste container to prevent it from releasing to communication channel or deteriorating afterwards exposing to luminousness. The cap must have teflon-lined septum. The polypropylene screw caps should be employ instead of distinctive phenolic resin caps due to the possibility of audition contamination from FA (US EPA 1998). In addition, when taking archetypes, we should use pre- ashened bottles that are free from volatile organics (Standard operating procedures for water sampling methods and analysis, WA, 2009).2.2 Sample collectionSample collection is very important in determining the safety of water, so its essential to ensure that the trys are exemplification, reliable and full validated. For complicated and un stab le water quality such us effluent effluent, sample collection should in any case cover the random and regular variations in water quality as well as the fixed conditions.2.2.1 Types of SamplingThe types of sampling include watch sampling, coordination compound sampling, flow-related sampling, automatic sampling and continuous monitoring. individually method has its own characteristics and suitable for different water body and sampling purpose.For drinking water, we use grab sampling method. For grab sampling, all of the test material is self-possessed at one time. So the grab sample can merely reflect the water quality extract at a crabby site and time, and thusly only when the sample was properly dispassionate can it represent the water body we concerned (Norwalk Wastewater Equipment Company website). collar sampling has some advantages. For example, some specific type of unstable parameters such as VOCs, chlorine residual and nitrites in water treatment imbed can be e ffectively analyzed. Sometimes, grab sampling can also be conducted for pH, temperature and DO monitoring (NWEC website). For drinking water, the water was well mixed, stable and generally free of contamination. Therefore, grab samples can already be skilful representations of the water quality. In addition, this method is very common, easy and low expectant cost.For wastewater, we use composite sampling method. Composite sampling is another sample collection proficiency which consists of many individual discrete samples that have been taken at regular intervals over a period of time of time. Therefore, the collected samples can reflect the average performance of water quality during the collection period (NWEC website). Wastewater treatment plants receive unfixed and variable amounts of sudden increased waste flows from industries and households during a day followed by intermittent periods of no flow (NWEC website). Analyzing a single grab sample of effluent at a fixed time and site can introduce some preconceived idea and cannot reflect the real varying flow patterns in effluent outlets. Therefore, composite sampling method is more plausible for evaluating the holistic performance and state of wastewater quality.2.2.2 Sampling sitesDrinking water samplingFor drinking water sampling, we can either take a sample from a customers badger, or storage tankful or some representative places.From a tapChoose a tap which is most frequently used.Any outside fittings such as filters and contaminants such as grease and sediment build-up most the spout should be removed prior to testing.Since tap outlets are venture to be contaminated, disinfection should be conducted by swabbing both outside and wrong of the tap several minutes before sample collection. The disinfection reagent can be 0.1% sodium hypochlorite answer (Forensic and Scientific Services, Queensland Government 2008).To get a representative fresh water sample, the tap should be run for a spot (abo ut 2-3 minutes) to remove the stagnant water in the tube.From a storage tankFor shallow depth (Small water supply tank),To get a representative sample of the source of supply, the sampling depth is recommended to be 0.5m.The bottle privileged and the cap inside should not be touched.The neck should be plunged down into the water and past turned upwards until the water is overfilled and mouth is towards tip (FSS, QLD Government 2008)For deep depth (Large water supply dam),To get a representative sample, the water sample should be collected by exploitation a suitable depth sampling device such as hosepipe, sampling rod or pump etc.Be diligent not to disturb bottom sediment.Wastewater samplingFor wastewater sampling, we should take the samples from outlets of wastewater treatment plant. Since we use composite sampling method for wastewater analysis, we should pour equal portions of freshly collected samples into the appropriate container.2.2.3 Collection operating instructionsAcco rding to surface water sampling methods and analysis technical appendices in Western Australia in 2009, the recommended collection proficiencys are listed as followsThe containers for holding samples should not be pre-rinsed.It is recommend that the bottles should be used to collect sample outright rather than decanting. However, in some cases, decanting samples from big collection vessels into sample vials are acceptable provided that all the containers are free of contamination. For example, sometimes a clean bucket with about 10L capacity or a large 1L surf can be used to collect the surface sample and then transfer to the laboratory sample container.To minimize the exposure to air and well-fixed, samples should be overfilled containers and then the cap should be tightly sealed free of air bubbles and faced down to help prevent leakage.2.2.4 Complete lab form and sample labelAfter sample collection, we should complete the lab form which contains the sampling information such as water volume, sampling sites, etc and get to label on each sample container which recorded sampling posture and time.2.3 PreservationFiltrationFor wastewater samples, the filtration treatment should be conducted since some suspended particulates may block the testing instruments.PreservationSome experiments indicated that aldehydes are susceptible to microbiological decay.To crucify microbial decomposition of organic compounds, it is recommended to add 0.1 ml of CHCl3 (Economou et al., 2002) or alternatively, 15 mg of copper sulfate pentahydrate in water samples (US EPA 1998).2.4 Sample tape drive and storageTransportationDuring transportation process, we should minimize the contamination and disturbance to water samples, conserve them in the dark and maintain in cool condition with a chilled insulated container and then return to the lab as quick as possible (Environmental health guide, WA, 2006).StorageBefore the lab analysis, the samples are recommended to be refrigerated but not freezed at 1-4C in the dark. forthcoming techniques for sample line of descent3.1 Available techniquesSample rootage is used to brook the analyte for its successful analysis by instruments. There are various methods for FA line. Each method has its own characteristics. The object is to choose an optimal technique to repress excessive loss of the analyte and achieve desired performance.Soxhlet declivity and issue extraction are traditionalisticly common extraction techniques, particularly for organic compounds. However, since their limitations such as the need of a large volume of upshot, lack of caloric stability and volatility of some analytes and interference from contaminants in the extraction thimbles (Grob et al., 2004), they may not desirable for FA extraction. According to recent studies and researches, some extraction techniques have already achieved good results. They are listed as follows.Solid-phase extraction (SPE)SPE is a technique including two extr action steps. The first step is the non-equilibrium removal of the analytes from the liquid sample by retention on a sorbent. The second step is the firmness elution or thermally desorption of the selected analytes (Grob et al., 2004).One successful approach for determining formaldehyde in drinking water has been to use colorimetrical-solid phase extraction with EmporeTM Anion Exchange-SR 47-mm extraction membranes as extraction cartridges and elution from the SPE cartridge by sodium hydroxide solvent (Hill et al., 2009). Another successful approach for formaldehyde analysis in water was by victimization poly (allylamine) beads for solid-phase extraction and eluting from the C18 cartridge by hydrochloric red-hot (HCl) solvent (Kiba et al., 1999).SPE is one of the most widely used techniques in FA analysis. collectable to its high sensitivity and efficiency, it can determine the low FA concentrations down to 80 ppb by several minutes (Hill et al., 2009). However, one of the drawba cks of it was its e high fisticuffs and sorbent selection requirements which might be costly and time-consuming in stuff preparation. Another problem is SPE may have analyte loss during elution when analyte personnel casualty though tube.Ultrasonic extraction (USE)USE is a fast technique using echography assisted method to assure good physical contact between sample and solvent (Grob et al., 2004). One of the researches has stated the successful use of USE in FA extraction. Formaldehyde was first extracted with water by ultrasound assisted, and directly introduced into a derivatization column which was packed with a moderately sulfonated cation-exchange resin. The resin was charged with 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) previously and used as solid support. The formaldehyde DNPH derived function was eluted by sodium dihydrogen phosphate in 50% ACN solvent (Chen et al., 2008).Compared with traditional techniques, this method was proved to be fast, accurate, sensitive and labour- saving. In addition, only tenuous quantities of solvent and sample were required. Therefore, its a assure extraction method (Chen et al., 2008). However, the drawback of this method was its low recovery efficiency. For low concentrations of analytes in samples, multiple extractions are oft required (Grob et al., 2004).Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)SFE is a fast and economic technique. Analytes are more soluble in supercritical fluids (SFs), which are expectant gases above their critical temperature and pressure, when they are in their liquid state. Therefore, the important properties such as the melting point and solubility of analytes in the SF are needed to be considered (Grob et al., 2004).A study has stated the SFE in FA analysis using carbon dioxide as the extraction fluid, and the experiment was carried out at 13.8 MPa, great hundredC with 15 min of static extraction time, 15 min of dynamic extraction time and 80 l of modifier (methanol). The DADHL derivative whi ch was the product of the condensed FA with ammonia and acetylacetone can be detected by UV spectrometer (Reche et al., 2000).However, one of the drawbacks of SFE in FA analysis was the use of supercritical CO2 fluid. Since the low polarity of CO2 but the polarity of FA, the extraction was rough and recoveries are poor.Solid-phase microextraction (SPME)SPME is a good extraction method which can hold in with GC or HPLC to get the high performance in sample analysis. It used a fiber coated with an extracting phase which can focus on the analytes and then the fiber is transferred to the injection port of separating instruments and analytes are desorbed from the fiber and cursorily delivered to the column (Pawliszyn, 2009).One of the researches has stated the SPME experiment for FA analysis. Prior to use, the 75 m Carboxen-Polydimethylsiloxane fiber was conditioned in the injection port of GC at 300C under helium flow for 1.5 h. Then the extraction was carried out at 80C for 30 min u sing the fiber with a medium stirring of sample. Next, the thermal desorption was reacted in a splitless mode at a temperature of 310C for 3 min (Bianchi et al., 2007).SPME technique has some advantages in FA. SPME is a simple, easily-conducted and solvent-free technique. The detection limits can reach move per trillion which is really useful in FA analysis since the concentration of FA is water is very low. In addition, SPME is fast and low cost which can minimize sample holding times, reduce analyte loss and sample contamination (Trenholm et al., 2008). However, one of the problems is SPME may have analytes loss during extraction that nearly 1% of analytes goes on fiber (Leap technologies website).Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)The theory of SBSE is similar to SPME which used a spinning glass-covered magnetic bar coated with a densely layer of polydimethylsiloxane to extract analytes, then thermal desorption can be carried out in the GC injection port (Grob et al., 2004). SB SE has been applied successfully to contact analysis especially VOCs and semi-volatile compounds in environmental, biomedical and food applications. The detection limits can be extremely low which are suitable for FA analysis in water (David et al., 2003).Theres limited information of FA analysis relating to SBSE technique, however, its still a promising method in the future.Newer techniquesNewer techniques such as pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), subcritical water extraction (SWE) and microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MWE) are enhanced liquid extraction techniques. Compared with traditional soxhlet extraction and solvent extraction, these methods are less time-consuming, less solvent consumption and more efficient and can be exerted to low concentrations of analytes in samples.3.2 Water and wastewater sample extractionFor drinking water formaldehyde analysis, we can use solid-phase extraction (SPE) which is commonly used, easy-operated and available in laboratory.For wast ewater formaldehyde analysis, we should remove particulates by filtration prior to extraction because particulate matter in the sample can interfere with the analysis such as absorbing some analytes of interest and causing low analytical recoveries. And then we can use SPE, USE, SPME or other advanced techniques for sample extraction. on-going techniques for sample analysisSpectrophotometric methodsThe theory of spectrophotometer is to measure the intensity and amount of light which have been absorbed or reflected by the analytes as function of colorize or wavelength (Skoog et al., 2007).4.1.1 Reflectance spectrophotometerOne of the studies has developed a method that successfully monitored the FA concentrations in water samples using purpald as the colorimetric reagent (Hill et al., 2009). Firstly, a dull intermediate was formed by purpald reacting with FA in alkaline beginning. And then an intensely purple tetrazine was formed due to the oxidization of intermediate. The purple tetrazine was served as the colorimetric product (Dickinson et al., 1974).After completing the colour reaction in the syringe, the 1mL sample is passed through an extraction disk. The amount of extracted analyte is then thrifty on-disk using a BYK-Gardner diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The reflectance data can be collected at 20nm intervals over the visible spectral range. After that, the BYK-Gardner QC-Link software in PC is used to calculate the Kubelka-Munk function F(R). Then the analyte was compared to a normalisation plot of F(R) at 700nm which was the most effective analytical wavelength to determine the FA concentration (Hill et al., 2009).This method successfully analyzed the FA concentrations at the range of 0.08 to 20ppm using only 1mL samples and just costing several minutes.4.1.2 UV/ microscopical spectrophotometerUV/Visible spectrophotometer can be used to measure the absorbance which is the difference of intensity of light before and after passing through a sampl e by an object as function of wavelength or color (Skoog et al., 2007).One of the studies for FA tendency used Hantzsch Reaction for derivatives. The colourless solution became yellow colour stepwise owing to the synthesis of DADHL which formed from the condensed formaldehyde and acetylacetone in the condition of excess of ammonium salt. Then UV/Vis detection was carried out with a UV-1603 Spectrophotometer (Reche et al., 2000). The upper limit absorbance was approximately at 415nm which was used in analyzing FA concentration in sample and the standard solution (Shimadzu Application News).4.1.3 Advantages and disadvantagesThe spectrophotometers are widely used in many laboratories and institutes. This method has advantages such as the lower instrument heavy(p) and operational cost and easy operation. However, the sensitivity and selectivity are lower than GC and HPLC method. For extremely low FA concentrations in water sample, this method is limited in application.4.2 Chromatogra phy methodsFor chromatography, since FA concentrations in water and wastewater are very low, it must be derivatized prior to analysis to ensure quantitative and qualitative detection. Nash reagent, dinitrophenylhydrazine and PFBHA reagent are typical agents which can have color reactions with FA. Then their derivatives can provide break off sensitivity for UV, fluorescence or MS detection (Michels et al., 2001).4.2.1 GCGC is widely used in FA analysis. According to many researches using GC for FA determination, the roving phase is usually helium and the different stationary phases were covered on column. By measuring the different retention time of the analytes, FA concentrations can be calculated out.1. GC/MSIn FA analysis, different molecules in solution can be separated during the sample travel by GC and then the mass to charge ratio of ionized fragments of FA can be detected by MS (Robert et al., 2007).One of the researches used the pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine (PFBHA) reag ent to form derivatives and then used a Varian CP-3800 GC system connected with a Varian 4000 ion snare MS system for detection. The injector was operated at 250C in split mode and separation was conducted on a 0.25m DB5-MS capillary column. Electron bear on ionization (EI) in full scan from 150 to 275m/z was used in MS analysis (Trenholm et al., 2008). Then the FA concentrations can be measured by recording mass to charge ratio. Another similar study also used PFBHA derivatization reagent and GC/ MS method (Bianchi et al., 2007).Advantages and disadvantages of GC/MSCombining GC with MS can have offend recognition and separation of molecules than single GC since molecules behave different in GC and MS. For FA analysis, GC/MS is widely used due to its rapid operation, high precision and selectivity. Having considered its good performance and cost effectiveness, it is proposed to be an alternative of traditional methods (US EPA 1998).One of the drawbacks is GC/MS is less sensitive than HPLC in identification of the FA derivatives. Another problem is GC/MS is susceptible to interference. For wastewater sample, the compounds are often complex, therefore the interferences may lead to imprecise analysis.2. GC/ECDUS EPA offers another alternative method to measure FA.The oxime derivatives were formed by adding pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine (PFBHA) reagent to FA solution at pH of 4. Then they are extracted from the water with 4mL hexane. After treat through an acidic wash step, the extracts are analyzed by GC with electron capture detection (GC/ECD). After comparing with the calibration standard, the analytes can be identified. Two chromatographic peaks have been observed for FA that both (E) and (Z) isomers are formed for FA carbonyl compounds (US EPA 1998).Comparison of GC/MS and GC/ECDECD offers better detection limits (

Benefits Of Farm Machinery Environmental Sciences Essay

Benefits Of Farm railroad carry Environmental Sciences EssayMan as a might building block of measurement is futile and nonproductive. He is confined to ab let on 0.1 knight ply uninterrupted turnout, hence account al nearly nonhing as a source of power. Thus if a upriseer wants to create an ample payoff from his poke he must be an efficient producer. Undoubtedly this dexterity will rely on the substitution of human and livestock turn all everyplace with mol juiceless. This replacement is termed as aro employment automation. Actually bring up mechanisation is each on-farm operation which carries roughly of fol kickoffing goals equal 1- to increase the production, 2- tone mint the cost of production, 3- improve superior of farm produce, 4- increase turnout per farm pastureer, 5- arrive at the farm life easy and enjoyable, 6- stabilize the clumsy industry peaks.Farm automation is sociological-cum-technological complex. Some people of our visited estate theor ize that mechanization will bechanceout in unemployment, thus they perceive that it is an opulence of laden nations. Some separates think that it b spike heels lot of benefits so should be adopted on a large scale. Still some good dealvass for partial mechanization of their farms. Later idea of partial mechanization looks economically conceivable.In then(prenominal) few decades m any developing countries have begun pastoral and livestock do work powered by railroad cars rather by living creatures and human labor and in this regard Pakistan is no exception. The trend of mechanization is bound to go up with the passage of era in a subjective evolutionary manner. A general awakening among the farmers about different aspects of farm mechanization does exist. engage has started on various fronts to implement the concepts of mechanization.Combine farming System instantly a days concept of combine farming system is gaining popularity. agree to this concept a farmer runs both livestock and agricultural farm at the same beat. Benefit is that he obtains provender and a nonher(prenominal) ingredients utilise in concentrate formulation from agricultural section while fertiliser for his plumes from the livestock section.Problems of the Livestock SectorMastitis is the major limitation for our milk creatures. It has twain forms clinical and sub-clinical. Clinical form is visually detectable and eject be treated hardly problem arises in solecism of sub-clinical form which washbasin not be unmasked at earlier put. Thus milk quality becomes compromised causing economic losses.Second issue is failing to detect genus Oestrus by the farmer in date and breeding the wildcats. Further much slow heating system is also a contributing factor resultant roleing in trial to breed animals in time and delay in getting calf. twain ar detrimental in achieving desired livestock farming goals. some other dilemma in livestock farming is to diag snout pregnant an imals. It is inevitable to have sex about the status of animal to provide it p lapr breast feeding cargon and feed accordingly or sometime to sell it. tho milking time and labor required, medications, restraining, routine farm chores like castration, dehorning, shearing, plumeping, acknowledgment label and reducing heat stress all seek solutions in some sort of machinery or equipment which should be reliable and trus twainrthy. contingent Solution in Form of automobileryDevice for Detection of MastitisTo detect mastitis in its earliest stage an electrical device (fig.1) give notice be prevail having sensors built in it which be able to sense instant changes in electrical enemy produced by somatic cells in mastitic milk. By incorporating this device in mastitis aver program one can be able to treat it onwards permanent damage to secretory tissue and economic losses to respect from hap draw uping. Some diagnostic tests for sub-clinical mastitis exist but they become lab orious and big-ticket(prenominal) as well on set basis.Device for Detection of genus OestrusIt is necessary to know exactly the time when animal ovulates to breed them. For this dis authorize a device (Fig.2) which senses electrical changes in vaginal fluids due to hormonal concentrations can be utilise. It has got a probe which is inserted in vagina and then schooling is taken. Reading will be 260 when animal is tone ending to ovulate (Fig.3). So to determine the exact moment for breeding one or deuce readings in days when animal is likely to come in heat rather than visually observing them will be more efficient.Fig.2Fig.3radical Sound MachineIt is essential to diagnose pregnancy earlier and to describe fertility problems at individual and herd take aim. By using ultrasound scanner it can be turn overd by day 30 of motherhood which is far earlier than rectal palpation. An accuracy of 99 percent can be achieved by using ultrasound added with the advantage of safety over rectal palpation which can harm the embryo at this stage.Fig.4Milking MachineIt is actually a mechanism designed to suck milk from cup of tea of milking animal. It consists of teat cups, claw, vacuum tubes, and source of vacuum, pulsator and milk tube. Two types argon beingness habituate one which is fixed and installed in shed or pen and second is portable and can be moved anywhere at farm quite easily. Use of milking machine is gaining importance as it is time and labor saving and assures hygienic collection of milk. Its use on herd basis also reduces mastitis cases if properly maintained and implemented carefully.Fig.5 Portable Milking MachineMobile Feeding TroughCertain conditions have been observed in field that animal graze at pasture where there is no arrangement for drinking urine and concentrate feeding. So for this purpose animal are brought to the shed for some time and again sent to graze. To solve this problem a trough can be mounted on wheels and drawn with a small tractor to provide concentrate, minerals and water to the animals at their skimming place.Sprinkler machineTemperature may override 45C in our country during summer months and our main dairy animal buffalo is more reactive to heat stress than cows and other animals. This is reason for an increased pattern of deaths due to heat stroke cases in these months. So to provide shield against high environmental temperature sprinkler may be utilise to shower water on animals.Nipple watererIt is an implement to provide water to the animals automatically. It protagonists to go through availability of fresh clean drinking water and saves wastage of water by the animals.Besides all these machine there is a long reheel of equipments which can be utilise on a livestock farm to make the farm operations easy. But here we are going to enlist those which are most needed.They includeBurdizzo castrator This gives several advantages over operative orders when a large follow of calves, r ams or buck are to be castrated. It provides bloodless(prenominal) castration and safety from post operative contamination of wounds. darn nose holder and rings Nose holder can be use when animal has to be restrained temporarily while nose rings are employ for permanent restraint and then rope or chain can be attached to ring when animal is required to move somewhere.Mouth gag It is utilize to keep the utter of animal open for examination of mouth or some other medical purposes.Anti Cow Kicker and Anti Kick Bar These are used to immobilize the animals while injecting some medicine or rectal palpation. (Fig.6)Fig.6Electric Dehorner This is used to disbud the calves at an early age when horns are not attached to the skull and are floating buds. It bring downs them and there hike growth is restricted.Shearing and Hair Clipping Machines Former one is used to trim the sheep wool usually and previous one is used to clip the hairs of certain region to avoid contamination. For example udder or scope around genital organs.Tat in additioning forceps and Ear Notcher Tattooing forceps are used to make identification marks and ear notcher is used to make V-shaped cut on ear of animal. This will be helpful in record keeping and recognizing the animals individually. soak and Balling Guns These are beneficial in administering medicines. Drenching gun to give melted solution and balling gun to give boluses.Problems of Agricultural SectorNow a days progress in agricultural sector does not seems to be possible without using brand-new agricultural implements. It is necessary to have new implements at farm and also to use them properly to get utmost utility. According to an estimate approximately 80% of farmer of our country dont know about latest agricultural implements. The implements which have gained popularity and wide use as tractor plows are agriculturalist and disc harrows. Hardly anywhere in gentleman these are used as plows. Matter of truth is that for plowing purposes usually used implements are mould board plows and disc plows, while cultivator is used as secondary farming area implement for tilling ground, stirring and aerating flat coat as well as for intercultural operation. It has also been noticed that in heavy soil a hard pan is created at a very shallow depth due to the continued use of cultivator and harrow for purpose of plowing. This pan creates problems of inadequate penetration of roots untimely drainage on account of incorrect use of implements optimum result can not be expected.It is also miserable that our farmer is squander much water because of his ill planed and unleveled farms and ditches. Our farmers do level their field by means of Karah without applying engineering techniques and naturally field lacks precise leveling. Even slim surface undulation of few inches in fields creates high and low spots resulting in water holding in low patches and less water supply in higher spots. Consequences of both are detr imental.Possible Solution in Form of MachineryAgricultural implements are broadly categorised in primary and secondary tillage implements, general agricultural implements and instruments for institute leveling. Tillage is actually working with soil by implements as that mechanical soil stirring actions carried on to provide conditions favorable to growth of produce. basal tillage implements (used in initial preparation of knowledge domain) includeSubsoiler which is used where soil compaction is present and hard pan is formed in field. It breaks and looses the soil. It can be used with 45 horse power tractor and can work up to 24 inches deep. Chisel plow can be used where upper layer of soil is fertile but deeper layer is not so much fertile instead it may contain more minerals. It can plow at depth of 20 inches. Use of lead on plow will improve soil fertility by providing space, natural elements like sunlight and rain to roots of kit and boodles. It may require 50-85 horse po wer tractors. Disk plows will serve to mix the left over crop roots and weeds in soil properly and is worthy for rain-fed areas as it prevents soil erosion by wind and water.Fig.7Secondary tillage implements includeDisk harrow that helps to prepare seed bed by making the soil granular as it is more suitable social organization for plant growth. Soil aeration and moisture conservation capacitor improves and weeds are mixed in soil and decompose so used as fertilizer. Cultivator is also called tine tiller. It is used to stir and pulverize the soil originally planting, to decamp the weeds and improving soil aeration after crop is grown. Rotavator is used to prepare the husbandry for next crop after previous crop has taken. It is better to use it before planting husk, cotton, maize and guar. It breaks the soil and mixes the stems, stubbles and other unwanted weeds which after decomposing serve as fertilizer.Fig.8General agricultural implements includeDitcher is used to make ditche s (furrow or trench) for soil irrigation and also for field of study of already made trenches. Border disk or Bund former is used to make border around the cultivated land for separation. It will help to reduce loss of water. Ridger is used to make small ridges (crests) at comprise distances for crop planting.Fig.9Instruments for land levelingIn our country most of farmers level their lands by manual regularitys using land scraper and land planer. In this method land is not accurately leveled. In 1976-77 program of water counsel was launched by government. In this program a method was deviced to level land with dumpy level, land scraper and land planer. But it gained no popularity because it requires lot of efforts, time and does not yield excellent results. Now laser technology for land leveling is available which most accurate method is. It is a hitch rule in aeration by land leveling that difference of not more than 2 cm should be present between any two points of field. In our country 5-10 cm or more is observed. laser land leveling system three main components 1- transmitter which rotates and emits rays and is applied anywhere in field to be leveled 2- receiver which is installed on land scraper behind tractor, it first receives signal by transmitter and sends to the interface unit 3- hydraulic system of tractor which works according to command of interface unit and automatically uses land scraper to level the land.Fig.10Besides land leveling irrigation practices can also be improved by using new methods like irrigation by sprinkler and drip irrigation. In former method water is sprinkled over the crop by pipelines and in drip irrigation a network of pipelines is installed in the land and water is provided drop by drop to roots of plants by nozzles. Both are helpful in reducing water losses. usage machineDrilling refers to mechanized sowing of seed. Before introduction of seed exercising sowing, this is a wasteful method. Seed drill is a device used to precisely position the seed at equal distance and pass them with soil. It ensures sowing of crop in time reduces cost of production and improves seed sprouting and yields.Fig.11 Seed drillFertilizer Band Placement drillIn our country fertilizer is also applied by broadcast method by which just 15-25% is utilized by crop. Seeder-cum-fertilizer drills being used apply fertilizer either too far from seed or too near to it. Both affect seed germination and reduce yield. So fertilizer band placement drill was created by farm machinery institute, nark Islamabad. It applies fertilizer at distance of 5cm and 5cm lower than the seed. In this way crop utilizes 60-70% more efficiently.Fig.12Harvesting machineWheat and rice are main food crops in our country as well as their by products are used in concentrate making for cattle and buffalo. During return season of both shortage of labor is observed through out country. So after applying lot of efforts it becomes necessary to get crops in time and reduce losses. To fulfill this deficiency a ingathering machine should be used which cuts and aligns these crops, harvested rows are then picked up by laborers. It is and intermediate method between manual and mechanized harvest.Threshing machineAfter reaping wheat crop is flailed in threshing machine. This machine has threshing drum in which beater or cutter shaft is revolved at a very high speed by attaching it with tractor or high capacity electric motor. Grains are separated and chopped drinking stalk plus grains fall on sort having pore sizing of 5 mm, thus allowing only grains to fall on second sieve below with pore size of 2 mm. Straw is blown out by fans and collected. From second sieve only dust particles, stones or any other foreign genuine less than 2mm size falls and fine grains are obtained.Combine harvesting technologyA latest technology to save time and labor required is to harvest and thresh crops at the same time. This technology has have three tas ks in single operation i.e. cutting, binding and then flailing. Its use is limited to few government farms currently in our country.Chopping machine for wheat strawHarvesting machines only pick up upper fragment of crop that is grains and leave high stem. Many farmers in our country burn left over straw in fields which damages essential matter of soil and also wastes wheat straw that can be fed to cattle. So after taking wheat crop chopping machine should be used in field to collect all the straw left behind. It picks up straw and cuts high stubbles, after chopping blows processed straw in separate trolley.Fig.13TractorsIt is vehicle-cum-machine, bears lot of power to do a categorisation of farm operations, and has many benefits for the farmer. It is used to pull all agricultural implements, most of agricultural machinery and to transport heavy goods. Many types of tractors like Massey Ferguson, FIAT, Belarus and ford are being used in our country but only two types Massey Fergus on and FIAT are most popular and have achieved 80% deletion. FIATs are available in 55-85 horse power range and Massey Ferguson is available in 50-85 horse power. Each model has unique characteristics like power steering, number of cylinders, disk brakes and four wheeler.Machine for convert ConditioningHay is sun dried fodder with less than 20% moisture. During the time it takes to dry it is also subject to environmental factors like temperature, wind velocity, soil moisture, solar radiation and relative humidity. So processing time should be reduced. In developed countries a machine for hay conditioning is being used which has rollers made up of plastic usually and crushes fodder crop and aligns in rows. By crushing action 1- time to dry reduces by 50% and hay will be less exposed to sun rays 2- plant is killed sooner and nutrients are preserved and resulting hay will be palatable.Baling machineIt is a type of machine which is used to make compact bales of already cut and raked cr op. Mostly a baler which makes round bales is used.Fodder chopping machineFor harvesting and then chopping the fodder crop a tractor operated machine should be used which performs both action at the same time and puts chopped fodder in separate trolley known as chopper cuff that can be pulled by tractor to use as mobile confluent wagon for the purpose of filling manger in large sheds.Fig.14 ratiocinationAs population is increasing human needs for food are also increasing. Plant and animal proteins are integral part of our diet. So to meet these increasing demands for food definitely require some amendments in livestock and agricultural farming practices. Goal seems obvious that is to increase per animal production in case of livestock farming and production per acre in case of agricultural farming without compromising product quality in relatively shorter time. To accomplish this we have to reduce cost of production, labor mired and to increase output per farm worker. These goals can be satisfied by using machinery and new technology.No doubt mechanization carries tremendous benefits with it but all the machinery is not in access of our small farmers. In case of large agricultural and livestock farms trends are being changed and labor is being replaced by machinery. Some efforts should be done by government to make costly machinery in reach of small farmer. Moreover farmers dont know about all new options which are now available. So extension programs should be run for the awareness of farmers which may contain both objectives to introduce machinery and how to use it and get maximum output. Skilled technicians should be available to use them properly. To achieve this goal training programs should be started at government farms for farmer that are cost free. These recommendations will certainly improve status of farm mechanization in our country.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Assessment and Evaluation of English Learning Modules

Assessment and evaluation of face Learning ModulesAssessment and EvaluationWe did the worksheets for the Standard Four pupils in SJK (T) RRI. The worksheets that we did are whole Six to unit of measurement cristal. Unit Six is itemise Me A trading floor, Unit Seven is Be Safe and Unit 8 is Save, Spend Wisely. Unit Nine which is Stories from other lands and lastly Unit Ten is Lets Celebrate. We based our questions on the English Year 4 textbook and other relevant resources such as workbooks and educational newspapers. The worksheets incorporate of three take aims. The first level would be the High English attainment ( hip to(predicate)) and the symbol would be a triangle. Second level would be bonnie English Proficiency (AEP) and the symbol represented it would be square. The third level is Low English Proficiency (LEP) which is a carrousel. We tried our level beat out to come out with worksheets which are suitable for all the students to answer. All the worksheets tendi ng(p) bedevil its own answer sheets as well. This is to enable t severallyers to be intimate the answers. in that location are different number of questions and sections in each whole. This is because every unit has its own types of questions that tummy be formed. One question willinging be one mark. The worksheets consist of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs), drive in the blanks, rearrange and rewrite the sentences and write sentences. We in like manner take into account skills such as class period, listening and speaking into our worksheets besides just writing. By this, students disregard change and do well in their future test or examinations. From the tryout worksheet, some students are capable of completing the worksheet, more(prenominal)over most of them occupy guidance from the teacher. They like the multiple weft questions because they just need to circle the answer instead of writing the answer by themselves. These worksheets prat divine service them becaus e it is a form of practising for them.Unit Five which is Tell Me A Story, the first section is where students are needed to choose the correct sentences by reading in the number in the correct box provided. In this section, the students need to read through the story first and then date out the sequences of the story. The story in this section is The Mouse- Deer and the Crocodile (Wignell, 2009). This enables students to imply well. As for the second part, students must join the two sentences into one. They must use and, scarce and because in order for them to join the sentences. The reason for this exercise is to enable students to exact how to join two different sentences into one. In order to let the students assure how to join the sentences, there will be an example provided for them. This will deal it easier for the students. The last section of the worksheet is fill in the blanks. This part, students are required to fill in the blanks to bump off the story. The story is The Fox and the Grapes (n. d, 2013). By this, students will be able to read the story and ascertain at the same time. This enables them to be creative in putting delivery that fits and tally with the story given.For Unit Seven, activity 1 and 2 are for the LEP students. Activity 1 is a reading activity which uses simple English for students to read. Activity 2 is MCQs. This can help the LEP students to choose answers from the choices given. However, question five will be fill in the blanks where students can give their own point of view. Here, students are required to think a bit. This can help in their Creative, Critical sentiment Skills (CCTS). Activity 3 is a reading activity, but it is for the AEP students. It uses long and challenging words. Activity 4, students are required to circle the words with the correct spelling. It is for AEP students. The words are longer and the word choices are close to each other. What makes it more challenging is that, the spelling might b e wrong, but the pronunciations can be the same. As for activity 5, students need to put the correct punctuations in the sentences. in that respect are short and long sentences. The longer the sentences the more punctuation needed in one sentence.In Chapter Eight, students are going to learn astir(predicate) how to save and spend money wisely. It is important to teach children roughly the pecuniary skills from young (Shin, 2013). In the first part of the worksheet, we try to enhance their reading and speaking skills. Reading and speaking skills are critical to childrens development, but it is important for their success in school and work (Boyse, 2010). Multiple choice questions can consider as an easy level, because they just need lonesome(prenominal) recognize a correct answer (Popham, 2011). For the AEP students, they can train their critical thinking skills from finding out the words from the diagram that had shown in the worksheet. Here, they can also cleanse their gramm ar skills. The students will do some exercises on the do and dont. They will be asked to write down a short sentence regarding the action in the pictures that had been shown.Moving on, there will also be questions where students need to calculate the total cost for owning each type of pet and write a short sentence in response to a direct question (Popham, 2011). In additional, since the topic is near saving and spending wisely, students need to write down their daily use of their spending. Picture of what they are saving for also can be worn in the space provided, as they will be asked to draw it. This can enhance their awareness in saving money.Chapter Nine would be Stories From other Lands. We first started with MCQs. Students will be required to read a loss given and answer the questions. In the second section of the worksheet which is filling in the blanks, the students grammar ability is being assessed. Section D, students was asked to complete the short sentences based on the pictures. In this section, we had given some words to help them construct and complete their own sentence. anyways that, complete the sentences based on the pictures are a useful way of finding information about physical objects (Yeh, Lee, Darrell, n.d.). These pictures also help students to construct sentences easily. Thus, this enables them to construct their own story. As for the last questions for Unit Nine, students ought to create any sentences regarding the pictures given. The story given was about the The Crow and the Pitcher. This is for the HEP students because students must make sentences with the correct grammar and punctuations.Lastly, in chapter ten, students are going to learn about festivals. Firstly, the LEP students will start by reading short paragraphs about other agricultures. These include the cultures of Chinese, Muslims and Murut. We included a paragraph about the culture of the minority group in Malaysia which is Murut. By doing so, students will be receptive to more minority groups in Malaysia besides Kadazan-Dusun which will be taught in the textbook. In the second session, for AEP students, we had prepared questions where students are required to fill in the blanks with the help of the picture given at each blank. With the help of visuals, students will be able to accurately retrieve the content associated with the visual (Kouyoumdjian, 2012). Besides filling in the blanks, MCQs were also being included in the worksheet. Lastly, as for the HEP students, they are required to complete the sentences based on the pictures and words given. The last question for this activity requires students in their CCTS where they have to think and answer the question.In conclusion, the purpose of all these worksheets is to make sure that the students improve on their English. A slight improvement is always better than nothing. When we interviewed the English teacher who is Ms Siti, she told us that the students there do not have high perform ance in English. They are weak in grammar and spelling. most of them cannot spell words correctly. This happens even though teachers try to guide them by going through all the exercise, question by question. Therefore, by loose them our worksheets, we hope to help them to be better in English and know the importance of that language.ReferencesBookPopham, W. J. (2011). Classroom Assessment What Teachers Need to Know. United States Pearson Education. meshwork resourcesBoyse, K. (2010). Reading, Literacy and Your Child. Retrieved from http//, S. (2012, November Thursday). The goose that laid golden eggs. Retrieved July Tuesday, 2014, from Enjoy Reading, English Story Books http//englishstorybooks01. web Savitz, J. (2014). Tips for being untroubled. Retrieved July Thursday, 2014, from Rowan University http// e.html.Emma. (2004). Top 10 tips for staying safe online. Retrieved July Wednesday, 2014, from Safety net Kids http//, F. (1931). Safety first. Retrieved July Thursday, 2014, from Books of Short Stories http//, H. (2012). Learning through visuals. Retrieved from http// d.). (2013). The fox and the grapes.Retrieved 21 July 2014 fromhttp//, S. L. (2013, January Monday). A beautiful meter on Childrens Day. Retrieved July Thursday, 2014, from http//, L. (2013). The 5 Most Important Money Lessons To Teach Your Kids. Retrieved from http// (2008, September Saturd ay). Learn and earn. Retrieved July Wednesday, 2014, from Motivation http//, E. (2009). The mouse-deer and the crocodile. Retrieved 21 July 2014, T., Lee, J. J., Darrell, T. (n.d.). characterization-based Question Answering. Retrieved from http// Photo base d-1.pdf

Is Elearning The Way Forward Education Essay

Is E tuition The Way Forward Education EssayE- learnedness, in its broadest sense, is the use up of networked information technologies in nurture. E-learning is to a fault called as network establish learning, online learning or Internet based learning. E-learning is not bound to time and classroom attendance scholarly persons and readers whitethorn be at divergent locations on different times. One of the most common types of E-learning resumes the form of distance learning configurations. Universities transfer course material for the assimilator to study individually and complete tasks based on the course material. This allows students to access the course material on the web anytime and from anywhere. Advancement in computing and information technology coupled with approximately universal availability of the broadband make e-learning an enticing option in many fields including health check pedagogics. In this assignment I go away be reflecting on my personal experien ce with e-learning. I will as well discuss its applicability in undergraduate medical direction, postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education of practicing clinicians.Theory behind e-learningThe meaning of cognition and learning have changed through time. There is a indisputable swift in emphasis on learning, rather than tenet, as we right move towards a learner centred curriculum. E-learning, which is based on well authenticated adult learning principles, certainly facilitates a learner centred begin. Traditional education is based on instructivism theory. Teacher or tutor teaches a predefined mountain of information, deciding what students had to learn. Students learn to pass the enquiry. E-learning is based on constructivist and cognitive theories suggesting that learning is individualised and the students past experiences and knowledge have a great match on the newly acquired knowledge (Jonassen 1994). Blended learning refers to learning involving aggregate methods and approaches, comm whole a mixture of class room and e-learningRequirements for successful instruction executionMitchell and Honore 2008 proposed a benefital system for successful implementation of e-learning programmes. The base of the pyramid, which forms the initiation for successful e-learning programme, consists of appropriate, accessible technology and usable, stimulating and interactive design. The apex of the pyramid is represented by the individuals who ar involved in the programme and their billet and motivation forms a major sort out in the success of e-learning methods. radical computing skills argon essential for the success of e-learning. There is an assumption that the actual undergraduates have the necessary computing skills. Kiran et al 2004 has shown that computing skills among undergraduates are variant and atomic number 53 butt end not assume expertise or veritable(a) ability. Good technical support is essential including after h ours support. For stiff e-learning, student should be able to access material quickly both on campus and at home. decelerate connectivity can be a task. There is goodish constitute involved in setting an e-learning programme.Role of e-learning in continuing Medical EducationAll practicing clinicians in the United commonwealth are obliged to attend Continuing Medical Education programmes to maintain knowledge and skills as a part of appraisal and revalidation (The General Medical Council). E-learning offers nice opportunities in this area. I have perfect many online e-learning courses. Advantages of these courses include tokenish cost, no travel cost and there is no need to take over time off to attend these courses as they can be completed from home. They offer excellent value for money and the quality of these courses are like to that off traditionalistic courses.I recently attended an advanced laparoscopic operation skills course. Few weeks prior to the course I was a sked to sign up to the course organisers web site. I was able access part of the course material. This enabled me to occupation some of the skills prior to attending the course. This has certainly nurtured my learning more than than I would have acquired without the access to the e-learning material. There were 20 participants form 8 countries and most found the e-learning genuinely useful.E-learning has make it possible for practicing clinicians from a outdoor(a) part of the world to contact their peers through pictorial matter conferencing in the care of difficult clinical situations and this facilitates on-the-job learning. When I was a resident in 1989 I had to wait for over two weeks to find out around an important adverse effect of a drug which now I could find out in a couple of minutes apply online electronic databases. In medical education there can be no doubt that opportunities for learning occur all the time and not confined to the class room and e-learning has a lot to offer in this regard.Role of e-learning in Postgraduate Medical EducationE-learning plays an important component in Postgraduate Medical Education. Many Deaneries across the United Kingdom has setup e-learning portals for the benefit of postgraduate trainees. Harden 2006 suggested that e-learning will be one of the most important developments in the delivery of postgraduate medical education. In surgical training many hands on courses utilise e-learning methods to enhance face-to-face learning.Types of e-learning resourcesThe basic e-learning resources include e-textbooks, power point presentations of lectures and electronic keep an eye on boards. The communication in these methods is one way. Bilham 2005 argues that much of e-learning using these methods was based upon a model of knowledge transmission from the teacher to student as in the traditional education system. The rise of new technologies has turned the World replete(p) Web from strictly an information destina tion into a platform, not only to read or watch media, merely to actually do things (Martin and Parker 2008). This has made innovative approaches possible in the field of medical education including congregation projects, virtual patients and virtual clinics. This encourages interactive learning.E-learning in undergraduate medical educationI discussed with many Foundation Year one doctors who have graduate from different medical schools across the country. I have observed that the consumption of e-learning is variable between medical schools. They felt that e-learning enhanced their learning in basic medical science like anatomy. multimedia system graphics helped them as they felt that the laboratory demonstration in it self was not ample for learning. In clinical medicine they felt that e-learning was beneficial in problem based case discussions and case presentations.E-learning has the likely to enhance the learning kind of of simply presenting the information. Examples of beneficial multimedia system may include a characterisation clip, computer animation for explaining the underlying patho physiology and images of investigations like chest x gibe or endoscopy pictures. I have observed that some e-learning using multimedia technology detract the learner from the key message that the teacher cute to convey and this should be avoided. Physical skills are best learnt by perform them under direct supervision. E-learning, however, can be employ to augment the teaching of practical skills. A video showing the technique will be helpful in priming the learner prior to attending a teaching session.Another interesting development in medical education is the application of virtual patient. Examples in this category include a video of clinical consultation to illustrate history taking or examination skills or for demonstrating a physical sign. This is useful for demonstrating certain clinical conditions which the student is unlikely to encounter during th eir short stay in certain clinical attachments like dermatology or rheumatology. Virtual patients can be used to teach the skills of diagnostic reason out and patient management through interactivity. There are packages acquirable which allows the student to take a virtual history from a bank of questions and this is followed by examining the patient. This can be artificial and I swear this is better learnt bedside.We have to acknowledge that most of the learning that occurs in clinical practice is opportunistic and technologies which could bridge the gap in experience will be beneficial.Assessment and feedback in e-learningAssessment and feedback are important elements of medical education. Time logged on to the website and accessing the e-learning modules can be monitored as a part of formative assessment. Formative or additive assessments in e-learning courses can be carried out using Multiple Choice Questions and Extended Matching Questions. Multimedia enhanced virtual patie nt case scenarios can be used for assessment followed by Multiple Choice Questions or diagnostic reasoning tests. Care must be taken to include all possible correct answers in diagnostic reasoning tests because programming can be technically contend. I have some reservations in using e-learning summative assessments as the identity of the student can not be guaranteed and may encourage cheating. Feedback in e-learning is limited to correction of mistakes and it is difficult to provide minute feedback.Evidence for e-learning in medical educationCook et al 2008 conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of net based instruction in medical education. They have concluded that e-learning is better than no intervention and as effective as traditional education. They have also concluded that there is no evidence to conclude that e-learning is better than traditional education. Clark 2002 has demonstrated that students are very satisfied with e-learning. Students, however, do not se e e-learning replacing instructor-led training but as a complement to it, forming a part of a mix learning strategy.Advantages and disadvantages of e-learningE-learning has many advantages. The learner can schedule the learning around their personal and professional feeling minimising disruption to their day to day life. E-learning allows the learner to choose the learning material which is beneficial to them. The learner can one thousand their learning which suits them best. They will be able to contact their colleagues and teachers in discussions which can happen synchronously or asynchronously depending on the nature of the discussion. E-learning encourages the learner to take responsibility to their learning.The disadvantages of e-learning are as follows. There is a considerable extend up cost as well as maintenance cost and this should be taken in to account when setting up an e-learning programme. As learners are responsible for their learning unmotivated learners and lear ners with poor study uniform may find it difficult to progress. There is added responsibility for the facilitator to be available on demand. Students may feel socially isolated, however, blended learning overcomes this issue. Slow or unreliable internet connection can be challenging as most multimedia content needs fast internet connection.ConclusionE-learning has become an integral part of medical education starting from undergraduate medical education to the continuing professional development of the practising clinicians. wish well other teaching methods, e-learning has its own strengths and weaknesses and need to be used appropriately. E-learning has the potential to shift the balance form teaching to learning. Basic computing skills are essential for e-learning. The range of e-learning activities varies from e-books to co-ordinated project works. Studies have shown that the results of e-learning methods are comparable to traditional teaching methods in undergraduate medical education. To be successful e-learning has to be combined with traditional teaching methods as a blended approach as practice of medicine involves real patients not virtual patients. E-learning is also playing an important role in the development of postgraduate trainees and life long learning of practicing clinicians. E-learning certainly has the potential to enhance the learning in medical education, if used appropriately.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Steganography :: Essays Papers

SteganographyIntroduction to SteganographyCodes have been around for centuries ranging from wax, invisible ink, Morse code, the Enigma utilize by the Germans during World War II and now steganographic. Steganography is the latest frame of reference to insidiously hide information over the Internet without a delay up of a file creation metamorphoseed. You ar able to hide centers in spite of appearance protrudes, voice or music. Steganography is an ancient method of hiding messages. Today messages are hidden in images and music. Steganography can be traced back to the ancient Grecian who would write messages on tab permits and cover them in wax. This made the tablets look void and unsuspicious (Kolata, F4). Citizens of ancient civilizations would tattoo messages on their shaved heads. They would then let their hair grown in and travel across enemy lines to part with the message (Seper, G1). During World War II the Allies placed a ban on flower deliveries with dates, crossw ord puzzles and even report cards (Kolata, F4) for fear of a message being hidden with in. Steganographers first alter their data by utilise encryption and then place the image into a pre-select image. Steganographers look for a piece of code that would be the to the lowest degree significant and look the least altered to the human eye (Kolata, F4), being as inconspicuousness and random as possible. This makes the messages undetectable unless you knew that there is a message hidden and you were able to crack the code. Hacking and UnhackingHackers and terrorists have been using this form of engine room for years. The United States governmental officials had suspected an attack on the United States for a period of time and thought the information to be hidden using steganography. Anyone can use and get nark to steganographic materials. Its easy to download on numerous sights and no software is required. Its an easy and cheap way to keep information secure and undetectable. The n umber of steganography sites has doubled in the past two years (Kolata, F4). The United States government is also trying to place restrictions on encryption methods to prevent another catastrophic attack in the sphere such as the World Trade Center attacks. By having access to a personal key the government would have unlimited access to secure information and crack codes all for safety reasons (USA Today). A private key is needed to decode any steganographic messages. Images are made up from a combination of an abundant of pixels (tiny dots).