Monday, September 30, 2019
Lectua Ã¢â¬Å"na ecologia de la diferencia: igualdad y conflicto en un mundo glocalizadoÃ¢â¬ Dia 14 Mes 08 Ano 12 Docente Claudia Patricia Rodriguez CALIFICACION UNA ECOLOGIA DE LA DIFERENCIA: IGUALDAD Y CONFLICTO EN UN MUNDO GLOCALIZADO Arturo Escobar, es un antropologo colombiano, nacido en Manizales, interesado en la ecologia politica, el desarrollo y movimientos sociales en Colombia. Especificamente, Escobar se cuestiono los problemas de hambre y pobreza de grandes sectores de la poblacion colombiana, Pero sus intereses se dirigieron cada vez mas hacia el area de las ciencias sociales y la antropologia del desarrollo, de ahi que viajo a continuar estudios de postgrado en la Cornell University y en la Universidad de California, Berkeley, donde hizo su doctorado en 1987. Entre sus especialidades figuran la ecologia politica y la antropologia del desarrollo, los movimientos sociales y las nuevas tecnologias. (Penuela, M, 2005, http://www. javeriana. edu. co/Facultades/C_Sociales/universitas/62/penuela. pdf) Adicionalmente ha sido profesor de muchas universidades en Colombia y especialmente Estados Unidos. Este autor refleja en una de sus obras y ensayos uno de los mas importantes y cuestionados temas a nivel mundial: la igualdad y conflicto en un mundo glocalizado. Se habla de la diferencia que existe entre los individuos que hoy hacen parte de la globalizacion, esta diferencia es pocas veces dirigida hacia una igualdad para todos, ya que la relacion que existe entre la globalizacion, la cultura de un lugar especifico y el desarrollo benefician mas unos que a otros. He aqui el gran conflicto, es cada vez mas comun ver como la globalizacion, es decir, un mundo global, que busca una homogeneidad se impone. Se da entonces un acceso a excluir a unos y dominar otros, ya que aquellos que dominan son los que tienen el acceso a las oportunidades y los recursos como lo referencia el autor. Se excluye entonces lo local, para pasar a ser lo global lo mas importante y lo que se impone; es el capitalismo, los medios masivos y las mercancias lo que brinda las mejores oportunidades, ya no se habla de biodiversidad sino por el contrario de la biotecnologia que se vuelve un recurso aun mas importante que la propia diversidad ya existente. Aun mas alla de las nuevas tendencias, existe un tema que referencia el autor como uno de los grandes conflictos y es la adaptacion de la diversidad cultural a conductas globales. Ã¢â¬Å"El mundo no es solo global continua siendo localÃ¢â¬ (Escobar, 2005), es necesario entonces pensar que existen condiciones de pluralismo cultural, diferentes percepciones acerca del mundo en general. Las principales condiciones que niegan la igualdad entre individuos son la parte economica, cultural y ambiental. Los grandes economistas hablan del valor que tienen cada uno de los recursos, los precios y derechos de propiedad son los que valen dentro del sector economico, sin embargo, las comunidades definen las practicas que determinan la valoracion de los recursos especificamente naturales de manera distinta a la valoracion economica; mas que un precio o valor monetario, el entorno natural y sus recursos tienen un valor intrinseco, no se puede calcular este valor ya que cada cultura percibe los recursos naturales de una manera distinta. Por otro lado, la relacion de las personas con el mundo natural, le da al entorno un valor para cada territorio, no todos quieren compartir de igual manera la diversidad natural de un lugar porque las comunidades le estan dando su verdadero significado. Fundamentalmente lo ambiental y cultural se reune de algun modo para diferenciar y darle pluralismo al mundo que hoy se une a la globalizacion, pero se elude aun la sostenibilidad cultural y ambiental. Es en gran medida esta falta de sostenibilidad un conflicto, que se traduce en la distribucion cultural, las diferencias culturales propagan desigualdad ya que algunos imponen la dominacion y se convierten en propietarios de lo que es de una comunidad en su conjunto. Se quiere cada dia, dar paso a la hegemonia entre culturas pero sigue marcando diferencias los comportamientos, sus derechos colectivos y tradiciones. El Estado tambien juega un papel muy importante, este lucha por conservar su practica cultural y defender lo que es de un territorio. En el caso colombiano se da un ejemplo de las culturas negras riberenas en la selva del Pacifico las cuales desde 1990 se unieron para defender un territorio, su biodiversidad y lo que era suyo, se defienden entonces modelos locales que perduran en la cultura colombiana aun y los cuales se mantienen en movimientos sociales. Aun cuando lo global trata de imponerse, la diversidad cultural, la economia y el medio ambiente son niveles diferenciadores para la globalizacion. Finalmente, si es necesaria le equidad de la distribucion economica, estrechar la diferencia de dominacion entre comunidades para permitir el desarrollo e intercambio equitativo. Aun cuando las culturas sean diferentes, se pueden entremezclar para establecer una igualdad. BIBLIOGRAFIA Escobar, A. (2005), Ã¢â¬Å"Una ecologia de la diferencia: igualdad y conflicto en un mundo glocalizadoÃ¢â¬ [Documento digital PDF]. Arturo Escobar, En: WEB, 2005, [en linea] disponible en: http://www. javeriana. edu. co/Facultades/C_Sociales/universitas/62/penuela. pdf. [consulta: agosto 12 de 2012].
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The Legalization of Marijuana Thesis Statement: The legalization of marijuana in the United States would create a drastic change by forming a more productive society through all of the positive uses of cannabis, physically, economically, and socially. I. Examination of the plant A. The other common namesÃ¢â¬âhemp, cannabis, bud, and weed B. SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s views on the plant are very stereotypical 1. Known as harmful, deathly, and hazardous 2. It is said that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude can be alarming and harmful to others C. Marijuana can be consumed in baked goods, vaporized, or even brewed 1. Brownies can be cooked with marijuana . Tea or coffee can be brewed with the plant D. THC is the main chemical 1. The amount can be regulated 2. It determines the strength of the high E. Marijuana has been proved to help and cure many diseases and health problems 1. Glaucoma, epilepsy, arthritis, chronic pain, and depression can be cured and prevented with the use of marijuana 2. Marijuana can even help one with aids II. Past legality in the United States A. At one point in time, it was 100% legal 1. It was one of the largest agricultural crops in the world 2. The first law to exist in the U. S. was a law demanding the U. S. armers to grow hemp B. In 1920, cannabis, hemp, and marijuana became illegal 1. It remained illegal until World War II 2. In 1948, all forms of marijuana were illegal again and still remains to be illegal. III. The United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ debt and taxation A. As of February of 2013, the national debt was $16,797,828,899,087. B. The death rates are more common for other abused substances 1. 50,000 people each year die from alcohol poisoning. 2. More than 400,000 deaths are attributed to tobacco smoking. 3. There are zero deaths related to the use of cannabis. C. The amount of Americans who smoke is substantial . 25 million Americans smoke marijuana in the past year. 2. More than 14 million people smoke regularly. D. Enforcing marijuana prohibition costs taxpayers an estimated $10 billion annually. 1. More than 750,000 individuals are arrested per year 2. The amount of money taxpayers pay to equip the state and federal prison facilities is substantial and would decrease with the legalization of marijuana IV. Regulations in stores vs. on the streets A. Cigarettes and alcohol are monitored 1. One must be 18 to purchase any tobacco product 2. One must be 21 to purchase an alcoholic beverage B.Marijuana is sold on the streets to anyone who wishes to purchase it 1. The legalization could help prevent the smoking of underage teens 2. Crime rates would decrease, as well as drug cartels V. Dangers A. Studies of the harm to the body caused by marijuana 1. It shows no sign of brain cell damage 2. Not one case of lung cancer has been found caused solely by marijuana B. Overdose will not occur if one smoked too much 1. One would have to smoke 750 joints in about 20 minutes 2. One wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t die from smoking marijuana where the death would be caused from carbon monoxide poisoning VI.California A. Decriminalized Marijuana 1. California was the first state to decriminalize it 2. The crime percentage dropped by 24% VII. Legalization in Colorado and Washington A. Illegal to anyone under the age of 21 1. An adult can legally possess up to 1oz of dried marijuana, 16oz of marijuana solids (edibles), and 72oz of cannabis infused liquids 2. Minors are still arrested and/or charged and will face sentencing B. Public consumption would remain a violation in both states, but a civil, not criminal, one 1. Crime rates have decreased 2. Debt has decreased
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Name: Zoey Tan Wei Lin (32) Class: 2 Endurance Date: 7 March 2011 A Day in the Life of My Mother A day in the life of my mother when she was my age was not easy. So a day in her teenager life starts like this. Early in the morning, about five thirty a. m. , I wake up and found a warm blanket on top of me. Ã¢â¬ËFather had waked up and had covered me, again, in his warm blanket. Ã¢â¬â¢ I thought. Anyway, I had to get up and help father in his humble little moveable cart that sell rojak, a mixtures of tropical fruits, such as pineapple and so on. So I got up, get dress and was ready. I got out of my room which I shared with four other siblings, my second sister, my younger sister, my second brother and my youngest brother. My mother had seven children, three sons and four daughters, however, my eldest sister had pass away when she was a baby. And my eldest brother slept in the living room while my mother and father slept in the other smaller room. My mother rent two rooms in this place near the Singapore River. When I got out I crept pass my grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s bedroom. She is a scary woman, most of us do not like her as she only knows how to take money from father but she did not see how much effort mother and father put in order to support the family. However, when she does not get the money she wanted as the selling of rojak is not good, she will throw the freshly removed skin pineapple on the floor and make a scene. Does she not understand that by doing so, lesser people will want to buy the rojak and thus father could not earn enough to give her? And, of course, I gotten my revenge, I will throw the pineapple skin from other stall at her hair, which is neatly tie up as a bun. Then, I will hide behind one of the big, tall pillar without her noticing and she will start cursing about who naughty children that throw things at her. Little did she know that it was her granddaughter who throws it at her. I walked past my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s room, look in and found that she had already when to work. My mother is a pleasant lady that never raises her voice but she does punish us. As I had said, our family is not very wealthy so we could not just get anything we want and my only doll which is made of fragile plastic was being thrown onto the floor and thus, it was broken. It is also one of the reasons why I quit school, I simply cannot bear my mother going around borrowing money to pay for my school fees and to buy the materials needed for schooling. Furthermore, I had to helped my father sell rojak since my other siblings are either too young or does not even care. Thus, when I get home I was so tired! And it is already very late and I did not have time for studies. The lights have been switched off and I had to use an oil lamp but I still cannot see properly under the dim light. Anyway, it had been about four years now since I dropped out of school and my day since then had much like today expect that I had to walk down to Clarke Quark to buy opera tickets for my mother as this evening at the outdoor theatres hall will be showing her favorite show. However, sometimes I get to go home earlier but I will still have to helped my mother cooked rice. We used firewood or charcoal to cook and it will end up very watery than I had to scope the rice up and dry it to become like rice. Now I got out of the house and help father pushed the cart. Fortunately, today is a good day where there is no rain and the sun is not too hot. Thus, we managed to sell all the rojak early but it is still a tiring day as there are a lot of bridges that are very steep and, always, there are those few customer that are very difficult to please. We mainly sell along the Singapore River, it is dirty and smelly as ever. There are many many interesting things that happened daily. Today there was a shark corpse that was found by one of the fisherman and when they cut open the shark, they found a body inside. Today we get to earn a little extra more so dinner was also an extra special. We reach home and while father work inside the kitchen, I went out to play. We can play with many things and we could anything possible to something that amuses us. We also play with fire crackers. But nowadays I did not play so much, instead, I go to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s park complex to look for either my aunt or my second sister. My second sister was working there as a tailor which I think I might soon join her as I could choose to be either a tailor or a hairdresser but I think i will choose to be a tailor instead of a hairdresser. Because I think it might suit me more. My aunt has a shop there, at the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s park complex, selling beads, laces and other decorative materials used in sewing. So every night I will drop by there to help out and maybe my aunt will give one to five cents for me to buy sweets but I always save it up in a biscuit tin. Then, I will go home with my sister. And on the way home we will cross one bridge that is very dark and we will always run across it sometimes there noises on it we will scream saying there is a ghost. And when we finally reach home, I will be so tired and will go off to bed. So those were the fond memories my mother had when she was a young adult but her life was not that easy after all. However, she was strong enough and had braved through all difficulties. When I first asked her about her life her first was not good, very bad but her optimist kept her going on. My mother will always be my top number one idol!
Friday, September 27, 2019
Festivals in Canadian Cities - Essay Example It can be seen that there is a specific agenda related to Canadian culture when looking at the festivities practiced. Background of Festivals in Canada The festivities that are in Canada are divided by specific observances for various occasions. The first way in which this is divided is by the rituals that have been observed by indigenous cultures that are in Canada. While this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t observed nationally and practiced by the majorities, there are still groups that observe seasonal festivities and religious festivals for different needs within the community. The festivals in Canada began to grow and change with the immigration that occurred throughout the 1700s and which formed present day Canada. The religious and cultural festivals of France began to be observed in the land. Religious processions, such as Christmas, were added in as observations from the church and other components which related directly to the religious beliefs of those that came to Canada. As the population grew into a more diverse set of groups, were also changes in religious festivals and observations, all which were based on the cultural and religious beliefs that were practiced by different groups (Riendeau, 60). The religious festivals that grew into the mainstream of Canadian culture were followed by ethnic and cultural identities that became a part of the different social aspects of society. These began to grow specifically after World War II when a large influx of immigrants moved to Europe. This was followed by statements in politics which created a belief that Canada accepted equal rights among all ethnicities. When this was proposed, a growth in ethnic and cultural festivals became a part of Canada. This was followed by different reasons for having festivals. Economic stimulation is one of the main reasons why the festivities began to grow in Canada. For instance, holidays such as Valentines Day are observed not only as an expression of love but also as a time for gift givin g in Canada and to provide stimulation to the economy. Folklore is combined with this as a part of the ethnic spectacle to create a defined part of the holidays. Self Ã¢â¬â definition of immigrants is followed with this as well as ethnicities having the desire to educate others about a specific culture or tradition. Another reason is to have forms of entertainment available for those who are interested in performances and celebration within the community (Bramadat, 3). Carnival de Quebec The Carnival de Quebec is one of the largest events held in Canada and is celebrated each year to bring in the winter. The festival lasts for 17 days and is the third largest festival in the world. The carnival began hundreds of years ago in Europe to welcome in the spring and to allow farmers to have a chance to pray that the animals would remain healthy as the seasons changed. The main concept with the festival was related to the idea of change of seasons, years and of the main occurrences thro ughout society. The French association with this was passed through not only with the Carnival de Quebec, but also is related to the Mardi Gras that is celebrated in New Orleans every year. The association with bringing in a different season remains the main component that is celebrated throughout each region (Morales, 13). The traditions that are a part of the Carnival de Q
Thursday, September 26, 2019
MODEL TRENDS IN NURSING - Essay Example Accordingly, a larger volume of nurses should be trained and developed to grow their efficiency in sufficing the requirements of the community, and if required, must also be capable of addressing the needs of the acute care hospitals. Correspondingly, a primary objective, when focusing on the restructuring of the US healthcare sector, must be to enhance nursing practices in accordance with the needs of the community. In order to accomplish this aim, training the nurses with the application of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) can be suggestible. This particular technique has been one of the major reasons for the successful performance of many of the healthcare units in the US. In accordance to this approach, evidence-based care shall further result in improved patient care as well as satisfaction of the nurses in the community level. EBP is also vital for healthcare practitioners and nurses owing to the fact that it acts as the foundation for disease management works (Saver, 2006). Anoth er practice enhancement mechanism that can be applied when aiming at restructuring the nursing trends in the US healthcare sector can be suggested as the Continuum of Care mechanism. It is among the vital aspects in the nursing practices that intend to augment the effectiveness of professionals. It directly focuses on the well being as well as the safety of the patients. The nurses involved in the healthcare sector will thus need to develop continuous care relationship with the patients through providing seamless services and simultaneously, seeking effective coordination and assistance from different departments of the healthcare unit (American Academy of Family Physicians, 2013). Hence, it can be argued that along with identifying the community healthcare needs, nurses should also be competent enough to work in cohesion with other departments of the community care hospitals. Scope for nurses from the restructuring Accountable Care Organizations (ACO) constitute of healthcare servi ce providers comprising doctors, nurses and hospitals who aim at working together to serve the community with efficient services. The roles played by nurses can be observed as quite vital in this group. The organization purposefully strives hard to ensure recognition for the nurses who deliver effective services, so that the nurses are satisfied in their profession and are able to deliver utmost care to the patients. Furthermore, the organization has reflected its endeavor to enhance effectiveness of nurses regarding to be included in this group (American Nurses Association, 2013). Medical homes can also be considered to add vital scopes to the success of nurses. Medical homes generally follow a team based delivery model that provides complete healthcare services to the patients focusing primarily on effective training of the nurses. It has increasingly become a new employment sector for nurses, offering them with complete assistance and benefits when serving the community (Sheridan , 2012). Apart from Accountable Care Organizations and Medical Homes, Nurse-Managed Health Clinics also provide vital opportunities
Pressure Ulcer Pain Management - Dissertation Example Depending on the nature of the pressure ulcer, common treatments include relieving pressure, restoring circulation, and resolution or management of related disorders. However, prevention still remains as the most potent intervention which significantly reduces the chances of undergoing excruciating long-term therapy (Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins 2009). Effective prevention measures include risk identification, pressure reduction, nutritional assessment, bed rest monitoring, and preservation of skin integrity. In cases of existing pressure ulcers, treatment options include: pressure reduction either by repositioning the patient or by using devices such as beds, mattresses, overlays, and cushions; use of topical ointments; wound cleansing; debridement; and use of dressings to promote wound healing (Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins 2009). The proper assessment of pressure ulcers is crucial in the determining risk of developing pressure ulcers and provision of appropriate interventions. The Braden Scale is used to determine characteristics present in pressure ulcers. This tool evaluates a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition in terms of: (1) sensory perception; (2) moisture; (3) activity, (4) mobility, (5) nutrition, and (6) friction and shear (Prevention Plus LLC 2009). The Pressure Ulcer Staging System is a tool developed by the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research to facilitate the assessment of pressure sore characteristics. ... Allen (2011) emphasized the role of pain assessment and treatment as a crucial part of pressure ulcer prevention and management. However, the assessment of patient pain does present some challenges since the sensation of pain is an individual perception. Any indication of pain is considered a valid pain response and patients can experience pain in varying frequency and intensity. In addition, patients may associate pain with movement, infection, or during treatments such as dressing changes and debridement procedures. On the other hand, there may be isolated cases where patients do not report any pain. 1.1. Background of the Study Pain is never ending problem for most patients with pressure ulcers (Caplan 2009; Allen, 2011). Despite advanced improvement in pressure ulcer (PU) care, the condition continues to be a national and international health care problem, resulting in a decreased quality of life, both physically and emotionally, unnecessary suffering, and even death. Research ov er the past decade has largely focused on the assessment and healing of pressure ulcers, for example, the introduction of standardized risk assessment tools, which are used for the prevention, staging and management of PUs. Despite, all of these measures there is still a dearth of research in relation to the prevention and management of pressure ulcer pain. The impetus for this proposed study comes from the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s personal motivation to search and examine recent evidence-based research addressing pressure ulcer pain, including the factors contributing to the pain, the psychological and social impact of continuous pressure ulcer pain, pain at dressing change and
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Organizational Analysis - Essay Example The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth focus spread to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s, menÃ¢â¬â¢s and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s wear with time. According to finance.yahoo.com (2013), Nordstrom is today a leader in fashion and with specialized retailer service for shoes, apparel, accessories and cosmetics for women, children and men. Nordstrom operations are carried out in two segments namely Retail and credit. The retail segment is known for services in brand selection and commodities of private label. Conversely, the credit segment operates the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s federal savings bank which offers a credit card of the private label form, two Nordstrom credit cards of Visa form, and a debit card (Reuters, 2013). 1.1.2. What Nordstrom Inc. does Nordstrom is well established as a leading high-end attire trade corporation whose revenue is derived from the trade of premium quality shoes, clothing, accessories and cosmetics (Laughlin et al., 2006). Through these numerous retail channels, Nordstrom offers to its client- base a variety of private label commodities and trademark names whose main attention is inclined towards shoes, accessories, cosmetics and apparel (Reuters, 2013). 1.1.3. ... Customers are also served through a loyalty program that is based on shopping and that features Nordstrom credit and debit cards. A fashion reward program is also offered to Nordstrom card holders where points are accumulated depending on the amount of spending for 2,000 points, a twenty thousand dollars reward is issued to the customer in form of Nordstrom notes redeemable from Nordstrom stores or online (Reuters, 2013). 1.1.4. Size Finance.yahoo.com (2013) reveals that Nordstrom has a total of 61,000 full time employees led by various executives, officers and a board of members. Incorporated in 1946, Nordstrom is today a specialty retail leader owning about 245 stores in 31 of American States and is still in the process of expanding to other states and internationally (finance.yahoo.com, 2013). The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s retail sector also has 124 Nordstrom Rack Stores and 117 recognized packed line stores. 2.0. Nordstrom mission and the role of HR in fostering the mission statement 2.0. 1. Nordstrom mission statement While operating through the Nordstrom retail stores, upscale shoppers are attracted and provided with nothing less than quality customer service and stylish experience (Team2misnordstrom, 2012). Nordstrom Rack appeals to bargain-conscious customers serving through discount stores. The operation of Nordstrom is in line with its mission of providing unique services daily and ensuring customers are served satisfactorily. Nordstrom also operates under informed decision making to best meet the interests of the customers and the interests of employees by embracing the richness of its workforce diversity (Team2misnordstrom, 2012). 2.0.2. HRÃ¢â¬â¢s role in fostering NordstromÃ¢â¬â¢s mission statement Human resource managers have the responsibility of building the overall
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
CRM Model - Essay Example Consequently, the medical industry has not been left behind in implementing CRM especially in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and High Dependency Unit (HDU) operations, Shortell SM. et al (1994). It analyses the human factors in high-stress and high risk environments. All available resources, information and people are used to achieve safety and competence. It involves team training and simulation of emergency situations. Though there are wide variations in the specific designs and implementation of CRM programs in different organizations, the aim remains the same. There are several similarities between the aviation industry and the healthcare industry. One obvious one is that both have highly specialized experts operating with high-tech equipment. Secondly, both have large numbers of people working in different areas in pursuit of differentiated objectives that lead to a common goal attainment; running efficient flights and delivering effective healthcare respectively. Another similarity is the inevitable interdependency of the different departments involved so as to attain the set goal. However, when it comes to risk factors, healthcare has a much higher occurrence of real emergency situations compared to aviation. Patients with complicated, life threatening ailments are rushed in several times a day and have to be attended to immediately. The possibility of human error in these high speed operations is a definite possibility. When such errors occur, they are attributable to poor teamwork in terms of communication, coordination and split second decision making. In a nutshell therefore, healthcare needs CRM even more than aviation. Modern healthcare organizations have no choice but to apply CRM models. This is because they have to do whatever is possible to ensure that they operate with the highest level of efficiency at all times. One of the numerous available CRM models focuses on primary
Monday, September 23, 2019
Developing Potentially Highly Profitable New Systems Technologies - Essay Example The new technology is emerged in business for improvement for buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s access to the important and critical information. The advantages and disadvantages of the competitors that already have adopted the new technologies are observed and important factors are taken from it. The success rate for adding new technologies into business is critically viewed from other companies. The success factors are in both forms like tangible and intangible benefits, so measuring intangible benefits are harder and some time results are long term like improvement in operational efficiency, the improvement of decision making of customer. (Turban and Volonino). Electronic Business (E-business) Electronic business (E-business) is a business done through the online network and internet. It provides channels among customers, supply chain partners, employees and other concerned persons. The firm needs to develop the e-business as a new technology. The performance measures like incentives and different o perating models are applied for promoting the business. (Turban, Volonino and Wood, 157) The basic demand of e-business is to maintain the website regularly. The business-to-business (B2B) sites may have many weak points that must resolve for getting improved performance of the e-business. By following such important factors and by focusing the performance measures make a positive impact of the e-business and also the firm gets benefited through it. The emergence of information technology improved the productivity of the products in firm. The demands of consumers are fulfilled according and through ease, so it is also important to make the e-business fully secure and reliable (Turban and Volonino). The intangible benefits for a multinational firm are the soft profits it takes from website. The accuracy and quick response not only for Web servers but also the software of e-commerce and databases need to respond quickly. The less web issues promote the business to success and results in customer satisfaction, which is great intangible profit for the multinational firm. It also provides tangible results for the multinational firm, when customers are more satisfied with e-business and easily and quickly perform the business tasks. (Turban and Volonino163) Fig.1 E-commerce Model (Source: Turban, Volonino and Wood, 166) The e-business promotes the business to success, and both tangible and intangible profits are shown in the firm. By following the models like B2C and G2C and many other strategies, a business can grow and enhance the productivity. These models are known as business markets that provide success to the business (Turban, Volonino and Wood, 156). The B2C market covers the national and international market, the buyers and sellers are organizations. So it is also called e-tailing (electronic retailing). Another market named C2B that is consumer based market and covers the consumer that purchases the products from firm. G2C is the market work among Governme nt-to-citizens this market provides services from Government agencies to the local citizens. And the business-to-Government market sells different types of products and also provides services to the government agencies (Hubbard). Funding of a Project and convincing the senior management Most of the companies shape product process development through the information technology. Increased productivity and quality improvement have been seen with the adaption of the new technology. Many of the manufacturing companies find it a methodology for the faster product development cycles, high level quality products and shorter production schedules. Justification of advantages of new technology before senior management is about economic issues and related advantages. The view is to cut the cross
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Historical Perspective of Management Essay Max Weber was a German sociologist that pioneered the term bureaucracy. Weber founded six major principles of bureaucracy Formal hierarchical structure, Management by rules, Organization by functional specialty, An up-focused or in-focused mission, Purposely impersonal and Employment based on technical qualifications. (Busting Bureaucracy. com) A formal hierarchical structure is the management pyramid that is designed to control the level below with organized planning and decision making. For example (chain of command). Then he developed management by rules such as policies and handbooks that are used by lower levels. Next is organization by functionality specialty this means that each individual will be placed in a position according to their specialty. These three steps of bureaucracy are still used today in every business known. Max Weber designed this pyramid because in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s the industrialism of our country was expanding and it was no order of command business was ran without consistency. And a change was needed to make things run smoothly. My advice to managing people today is to organize your business according to functional specialization. Your employees and managers according to their skills and expertise so that each job will be done to the best of that person or persons knowledge and capabilities. Use clear lines of hierarchical authority in doing so you will need to put together a clear set of policy and rules that underline the chain of demand in detail. Your managers will need to be trained accordingly with consist seminars and meeting so that they can be well trained and fully informed about their duties and the duties of their staff. Decision making should be based on the rules and guidelines developed to guarantee consistent and effective reflection of organization goals.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Entrepreneurial Strategies Of Tara Orekelewa Cultural Studies Essay Tara Fela-Durotoye popularly known as Tara Orekelewa which means beautiful or beauty in her native west-arfican language is the managing director and creative director of HOUSE OF TARA International, a make-up and skincare line targeted at women of color. She is a veteran in the beauty industry and the pioneer of bridal make-up in Nigeria. She launched the first bridal directory in Nigeria (1999), set up the first high standard make-up studio, and the very first make-up school in the country. She was also the first make-up artist to launch a beauty product line. Tara is seen as an inspiration to many young women, as she has empowered quite a number (especially those in tertiary institutions) by making them beauty representatives of her product line, which has helped young ladies improve their entrepreneurial and marketing skills, as well as gain some form of financial independence in a difficult economy. She has also succeeded in training and developing an impressive number of make-u p artists through her make-up school. Tara is an acclaimed winner of international and national awards. Awards such as Entrepreneur of the Year (2006), Pioneer Award for Beauty (2006), Young Person of the year (2007), The Wedding Planner Honorary award for mentoring other make-up artists (2008) and others. BACKGROUND: Tara studied Law at the Lagos state university, Nigeria from the year 1996 to 2000. She attended Charles Fox (Covent Garden,London) to get trainned and certified, and in a bid to get more professional, attended the LEAP African Business Managers Forum (2005) and the Lagos Business School Ownner-Manager Programme in 2006 (House of Tara 2009). Taras involvement with beauty and make-up was highly influenced by her step mother whom she was very fond of as a child. Her step mother according to her, was very much in touch with femininity and could be described as vain. This made her very aware of make-up and beauty products at an early stage in life and sub conciously,formed a mini-foundation on what later on became her passion. Her journey started as far back as when she graduated from high school and was seeking admission into university. While waiting at home to get into university, she got a part-time job working in a perfume and cosmetics store. That was her very first step into the world of beauty and its allure. While working at the store, she had the opportunity to prcatise on customers and herself while idle (on a slow day when not many customers came in) and slowly, she began to educate herself on the power of make-up under the mentorship of her boss. By the time she got admission into university, she was no longer a n amateur. The time spent in the perfume and cosmetics store had been well invested and she had now learned through practise how to apply make up. She had developed a flair for it and I quote what she said you see, I loved it! I loved to make people beautiful and I was passionate about making people love the way they looked albeit enhanced by make-up, but the way they looked nontheless(Durotoye 2010) While at school, she practised frequently on her friends whenever they were invited for ocassions and started her business. Through this, she began to make some money for herself. She was actually able to pay her way through school, rent an apartment and even help with her sick fathers medical bills. At that point in her life, her father had suffered a stroke,leaving half of his body paralyzed. Her mother, though she was working with the Nigerian Civil Service at the time, had to take care of her father, giving up all businesses on the side. So obviously, her mother already had enough on her hands, so she did her best not to be a liability and instead was an asset to to her family through her gifted hands and her passion for make-up. Another highly influential force in her life was her husband, Fela Durotoye. When Tara met Fela, he was a consultant at Phillips Consulting with a solid business management background. He saw the potential in her and helped her build her small business (as of then) into something remarkable. He thought her basic things such as customer service, product management, and how to create a database for her customers. She undoubtedly had the talent, skills, and a growing customer base, but he brought some form of finesse and experience into her business which helped her succeed even more. She started out small, but her name spread from place to place little by little around the country. She took a leap of faith even when the concept of bridal make-up was very limited in Nigeria, made herself a name, set-up a make-up studio, started a beauty school; which is where the idea of beauty representatives to sell her products originated from and now has her very own product line. She launched her perfume called be inspired in the year 2007 and is currently writing a book on how she turned her passion into a profit making venture. Tara and Fela are currently happily married and blessed with three children. Resources Leader Opportunity Process TeamTHE ROADMAP: The Leader/ Founder: According to Burns(2007), the role of a successful entrepreneurial leader involves patience, the ability to infuse solid or tangible visions and management for the long haul. Tara Fela-Durotoye is the founder of House of Tara international. She is highly respected by most of her staff and even colleagues in the make-up industry in Nigeria. Taras personality, like most entrpreneurs is very positve and optimistic. She has a firm believe in God and built her business in the most ethical way possible, emulating one of her mentors Anita Roddick (the founder of Body Shop). Opportunity: Accoding to Burns (2007), entrepreneurs in contrast to regular people, adapt,exploit, and welcome change by creating an opportunity out of it through innovation. In the case of Tara Fela-Durotoye, she welcomed the change to the make-up enviroment at the perfume store where she had her first job, by using it to build on an innate skill. As at that time, most customers were not really familiar with the make-up facial sample testing, but because the owner of the store had lived abroad, she brought the mentality home to Nigeria with her, which was a new approach to selling make-up back then. This provided the opprotunity to learn and led to a series of events that occurred through innovative ideas (opening a bridal make-up studio, make up school and having a cusmetic product line). Other business opportunities she had where: Her spouse, who was her business consultant A chinese business partner who came into the picture when she decided to launch her cosmetic product line. Employment of a general manager, who was an MBA graduate of Lagos Business School, who helped build the franchise document and implemented it. This enabled her to sell the HOUSE OF TARAÃ franchise, thus, accelerating geographic expansion Team: According to Lockett (2010), it is an illusion to assume that entrepreneurs are totally independent. The most successful entrepreneurial leaders are those who have built good teams and have good relationships with the individuals that surround them. Taras team consists of a general manager,a business consultant, a chinese business partner, an administrative team, a sales and marketing team, and about 300 beauty representatives who are marketing her cosmetic products. Process: According to Baron and Shane(2005), entrepreneurship is descibed as a process rather than a single event. The process is considered to move through distinct but holistic phases that unfold over time. This process consists of idea generation, opportunity recognition, and the exploitation of that opportunity (Lockett 2010). These series of events would be shown in the diagram below: The entrepreneurial process The birth of the idea of the make-up business from the time spent and skills acquired from her fist job at the perfume and cosmetic store. She then realized her potential through the process of sample testing on customers. Idea Generation The opportunity to turn her hubby into a profit making venture presented itself when the change in the area of purchasing cosmetics (sample testing) was tapped into as a business idea to be learnt from and exploited even after leaving the store. Opportunity Recognition From exploitation of change to a ripple of ideas and opportunities Exploitation Expressed as a business model Source: Lockett 2010 OPPORTUNITY BUSINESS MODEL Source: Lockett 2010 Proposition To enrich the lives of young women by offering them quality products to enhance their beauty and self esteem. These beauty products that can also be used as a tool for becoming financially independent. People The leader is Tara Fela-Durotoye, her husband Fela Durotoye is her business consultant, she has a Chinese business partner for ease with product development and expansion and her team consists of a general manager, an administrative team, marketing and sales team, and beauty representatives. Her customers are women of color, and her supplier is also her Chinese business partner. Place For now Taras business is still based in Nigeria though she has plans of expansion. Are customers are women in Nigeria, her and her competitors are other make-up artists such as unveil, divine looks, BM Pro, and so on. Analysis of the market: Tara was a pioneer in the make-up industry in Nigeria. She was the first to set up a bridal studio, make-up school, and make-up product line. This has made it quite difficult for her competitors to catch up, her market share is quite large and she also has first mover advantage. Process House of Tara has an MD/ CEO, a general manager and the rest of her team (as mentioned earlier). But the uniqueness of the structure of this organization is the beauty representatives idea. About 300 of them are currently marketing her products after they have been trained. Profit As an entrepreneur, Tara started her business because she had a passion for beauty and of course made profit from it. She believes in giving back to the community, and inspiring others. Social return: Tara, through her giving back venture, has gained the heart of youths, which has helped in expansion of her brand name across most universities in Nigeria. She has also made an irrefutable impact on the press, which has made her become a media darling. Societal The only societal driver in this case was the change in the make-up sales procedure. The society as at the time Tara began her entrepreneurial journey had not keyed into the idea of sampling before buying. After the society recognized this new process and accepted it, her business idea benefited from this social change(though it was not of her making) through her bridal studio as people now saw the need to test and sample make up, especially for very important occasions such as weddings. Commercial Information for this was not attainable Legal Information for this was not attainable Technological Online social networking was a great opportunity for Taras business venture, she possesses an active website, has a face book group, and a personal blog. Resources: According to Hitt et al (2002), in order to recognize entrepreneurial opportunities with maximum potential returns and exploit them by using efficient approaches, an appropriate set of resources are required. Taras resources into her new business venture were very limited. She did not have any financial back up from her parents, but because she had started at an early stage she had a little financial back up but along the line she became partner with a Chinese business man who helped her fulfill the dream of having her own make-up line. She also had financial aid from multinational companies. However it is easier to narrate now than it actually was back then, she said, and I quote this business started from a box that I used to carry around making up peoples faces. What could be deduced from all that has been stated above is that there is a link between each constituent of the road map. The founder of the business has an idea or dream, identifies an opportunity, exploits it, and creates a new venture from all this. And because entrepreneurs are not completely independent (Lockett 2010), they need a team to carry along to help fulfill the dream. That is where the team members come in, and here, the leadership skills also come into play. The resources help solidify the dream and the process wraps the journey all up. Role of Social Networking and Social Capital: According to Hitt et al (2002), formation of alliances and networks has become an important part of organizing to obtain the necessary resources and means to compete effectively in a business environment. Other than this, the formation of these alliances helps in the development of resources and means that are not easily imitated by others, which would lead to gaining competitive advantage. Tara started her business through word of the mouth. Social networking has been a huge part of her success. Most of her contacts were gotten from one individual who knew another who could be of value to her. For example her second bridal make-up job when she first started out, her Chinese business partner, the employment of her general manager( by recommendation), and even her image. She built her image by granting multiple interviews, creating an online presence through face book, personal blog and the creation of an active website, offered free scholarships for enrollment at her make-up school for the less privileged, became a public speaker by organizing youth seminars in universities, so as to put her company in the minds of people (branding) and sponsored events regularly. Her networking skills helped build her image and this resulted in making her darling with the press, which further promoted her products. She also uses her network for the patronage of her products within the upper and middle class women within the community. Her mentor Mrs Ibukun Awosika was her link to bridging talks between the company and the bank for her first substantial debt into the business that was required for expanding her product line. This influx of debt from Guaranty Trust Bank (Lagos, Nigeria) aided the rapid geographical expansion of House of Tara. Women in Business and Management (WIMBIZ) also created a platform for her participation in the US State department / Fortunes powerful womens mentoring programme. Ethical issues: Tara is a very good Christian and believes very strongly in God. Auditors when examined her accounts often advise her to stop giving away so much money to churches; they felt too much money was being wasted. But she stood her grounds and insisted that God was her ultimate source. Entrepreneurial Attribute Analysis: Taras entrepreneurial attributes would be compared with the core attributes in the model below: Source: Lockett 2010 Commitment and determination: Following her story, one could easily see that she had these qualities. Leadership: Her story is that of success, she wouldnt have made it that far if she didnt possess good leadership skills. Moreover, she has the respect and admiration of her staff and even her competitors. Opportunity Obsession: Tara could be seen as an opportunist. She was the first in every move, first make-up artist, first studio owner, and the first product line owner in the Nigerian beauty industry. Tolerance of risk: All her steps into new ventures and ideas where risky. She had no ones mistakes to learn from in the industry. Ambiguity and Uncertainty: She possessed these as well; no one could anticipate her next move. Creativity, Self-Reliance, and Adaptability: Tara was creative, hence the idea generation for business. She also had no one but herself to rely on at the initial start of the business and lastly, she adapted excellently to changes in the business environment, she created opportunities out of them. Motivation to excel: Her motivation was herself, her mentors and God. Courage: She possessed huge amounts of courage; she ventured into her business all by herself with no examples to follow in her particular industry. Conclusion: Tara Fela-Durotoyes entrepreneurial road map and process from the very first step of idea generation to building a national brand soon to be international brand-name has been a success. The critical review of her journey as an entrepreneur has been contrasted with theoretical frame-works, and has not shown much of a difference. The only difference noticeable is the fact that the entrepreneurial process may not evolve step by step as seen in Taras case. She had the opportunity to work at a cosmetics store before she ever had the idea of becoming a make-up artist, opening her own studio and becoming a veteran in Nigerias cosmetic industry. In her own case, opportunity brought about idea.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Marketing Plan for Bio-Mag Bracelets EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The purpose of this analytical report is to provide a marketing plan for Bio-Life Ltd new product, Bio-Mag Bracelet on its magnetic therapy purposes. As health issues are popular concerns of people in Australia and overseas market, it is necessary for Bio-Life Ltd to get into this market as soon as possible. This marketing plan is to review the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing arrangement for the new product but to also recommend strategic responses to assist Bio-Life Ltd in developing a sustainable operating system. In the following sections, product, Bio-Mag Bracelet will be analysed in depth in the order of firstly, background; secondly, marketing strategies; thirdly, marketing mix included product, price, people, placement and promotion; lastly, SWOT analysis. It is anticipated that the marketing plan we have developed will facilitate the new product, Bio-Mag Bracelet success in the coming years. Marketing strategies of the Bio-Mag Bracelet is based on Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning. Positioning and Segmentation strategies adopted by Bio-Mag Bracelet are quality; styling and pain relief to attract its targeted customers. Besides that, the main purpose of Bio-Mag Bracelet is natural healing without drugs in pain relief, increase blood circulation and reduces inflammation and speeded up recovery rate from injuries. The targeted consumers of the product are middle and upper classes, which need natural healing and health care. Differentiation is also an important strategy. Bio-Mag Bracelet differentiated from competitors with the additional features of one size fits all. As the product will be finished by 9ct gold and stainless steel, the retail price of it is in a higher range. It is also contain a 2000 Gauss / 200 mTesla special Rare Earth magnets. The location of the retailing will be mainly in big shopping malls or more prestigious and well known area. Placement includes elements such as channels, coverage, assortments, locations, inventory and transport of the product. The S.W.O.T is to analysis Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of the productÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing plan. Background As technology advances, the environment has also start to become more and more demanding and competitive with each and every individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ pace life always on the inc... ...ing up sales. Nevertheless, Bio-Mag Bracelet also faced great competition from other health products such as massage machine and so forth; which there are many different health products in the market. BIBLIOGRAPHY Barrett S., 2001 Ã¢â¬Ëmagnet therapyÃ¢â¬â¢ available online at http://www.helhetsdoktorn.nu/magnet.htm Cralle, R. (1997). Therionresearch.com: Magnetic Therapy. http://www.therionresearch.com/learning_center_articles.html (Accessed 18th May 2005). Kotler, P. (2003) Marketing Management. Pearson Education, Inc., New Jersey, United States. No Author. (2005) Stuck On You: Magnetic Therapy Supplier. http://www.stuckonyou.com (Accessed 15th May 2005). No Author. No Date. Magnetic Therapy History. http://www.discovermagnetics.com/faq2.html (Accessed 18th May 2005). No Author. No Date. The Scientific Basis For Magnet Therapy Analytical Research Report. http://www.itembioenergy.com/infocenter/ScientificBasisMagnetTherapy.pdf (Accessed 18th May 2005). CompetitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Website: - Magnet-EZe: http://magnet-eze.com.au Australian Magnet Therapy: http://www.australianmagnettherapy.com Bio-Magnetic Therapy: http://www.biomagnetictherapy.net
Othello: the Story of a Noble BeingÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã The William Shakespeare creation Othello sees the demise of a noble general, as a result of the incessant brainwashing by his ancient. Let us in this essay present the noble Othello and wherein lay his tragic mistake. Ã Lily B. Campbell in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Tragic Heroes describes the unquestioned nobility of the Moor: Ã From the first we hear the fact insistently repeated that he is a Moor, that he has thick lips, that Desdemona has chosen to go to his sooty bosom. Yet we are told that he is of noble birth, that war and adventure have bee his nurses, that he may be considered a barbarian and yet that the Venetian state has found him so valuable in action that he cannot be expelled, no matter what offence may be found in him. His vaunting has won him his wife; his actions have won him the confidence of the state. His noble nature is not questioned even by Iago. (152) Ã Helen Gardner in Ã¢â¬Å"Othello: A Tragedy of Beauty and FortuneÃ¢â¬ talks of the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s exceptional personal qualities: Ã Othello is like a hero of the ancient world in that he is not a man like us, but a man recognized as extraordinary. He seems born to do great deeds and live in legend. He h as the obvious heroic qualities of courage and strength, and no actor can attempt the role who is not physically impressive. He has the heroic capacity for passion. But the thing which most sets him apart is his solitariness. He is a stranger, a man of alien race, without ties of nature or natural duties. His value is not in what the world thinks of him, although the world rates him highly, and does not derive in any way from his station. It is inherent. He is, in a sense, a Ã¢â¬Ëself-made manÃ¢â¬â¢, the product of a certain kind of life which he has chosen to lead. . . . (140) Ã Despite the wonderful personal attributes he possesses, Othello still falls prey to the sinister Iago. His gullibility and naivete make this possible. Francis Ferguson in Ã¢â¬Å"Two Worldviews Echo Each OtherÃ¢â¬ describes how Othello carries out IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s plan of destruction: Ã Othello moves to kill Desdemona (Act V, scene 2) with that Ã¢â¬Å"icy current and compulsive courseÃ¢â¬ which he had felt at the end of Act III, scene 3. Othello: the Story of a Noble Being :: Othello essays Othello: the Story of a Noble BeingÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã The William Shakespeare creation Othello sees the demise of a noble general, as a result of the incessant brainwashing by his ancient. Let us in this essay present the noble Othello and wherein lay his tragic mistake. Ã Lily B. Campbell in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Tragic Heroes describes the unquestioned nobility of the Moor: Ã From the first we hear the fact insistently repeated that he is a Moor, that he has thick lips, that Desdemona has chosen to go to his sooty bosom. Yet we are told that he is of noble birth, that war and adventure have bee his nurses, that he may be considered a barbarian and yet that the Venetian state has found him so valuable in action that he cannot be expelled, no matter what offence may be found in him. His vaunting has won him his wife; his actions have won him the confidence of the state. His noble nature is not questioned even by Iago. (152) Ã Helen Gardner in Ã¢â¬Å"Othello: A Tragedy of Beauty and FortuneÃ¢â¬ talks of the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s exceptional personal qualities: Ã Othello is like a hero of the ancient world in that he is not a man like us, but a man recognized as extraordinary. He seems born to do great deeds and live in legend. He h as the obvious heroic qualities of courage and strength, and no actor can attempt the role who is not physically impressive. He has the heroic capacity for passion. But the thing which most sets him apart is his solitariness. He is a stranger, a man of alien race, without ties of nature or natural duties. His value is not in what the world thinks of him, although the world rates him highly, and does not derive in any way from his station. It is inherent. He is, in a sense, a Ã¢â¬Ëself-made manÃ¢â¬â¢, the product of a certain kind of life which he has chosen to lead. . . . (140) Ã Despite the wonderful personal attributes he possesses, Othello still falls prey to the sinister Iago. His gullibility and naivete make this possible. Francis Ferguson in Ã¢â¬Å"Two Worldviews Echo Each OtherÃ¢â¬ describes how Othello carries out IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s plan of destruction: Ã Othello moves to kill Desdemona (Act V, scene 2) with that Ã¢â¬Å"icy current and compulsive courseÃ¢â¬ which he had felt at the end of Act III, scene 3.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Al Capone was possibly the largest and most feared mofia boss America has ever seen. This 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s gangster made his mark on the world through organized crime during the Prohibition era. He is solely attributed with ChicagoÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation as a lawless city. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Alphonsus Capone was born on January 17, 1899 in Brooklyn, New York. As a child he was a member of the Brooklyn Rippers and the Forty Thieves Juniors Ã¢â¬Å"kid gangs.Ã¢â¬ Capone quit school at age fourteen in the sixth grade. He worked a few odd jobs in Manhattan in a bowling alley and a candy store. Then Capone took a position as a bouncer in Frankie YaleÃ¢â¬â¢s Brooklyn dive and the Harvard Inn. While working at the Inn he was attacked by a man and received the facial scars that would give him the byname Ã¢â¬Å"Scarface.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Capone met Anne Ã¢â¬Å"MaeÃ¢â¬ Coughlin at a dance in 1918. Later that year on December 4, 1918 she gave birth to their son, Albert Ã¢â¬Å"SonnyÃ¢â¬ Francis. Less than a month later they were married. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Capone became a member of the Five Points gang in Manhattan. During this time he hospitalized a rival gang member in a fight. Feeling the heat from the conflicting group, he moved his family to Chicago. He began to work for John Torrio, an old partner and mentor of Yale. Capone was soon helping to manage TorrioÃ¢â¬â¢s bootlegging business. He quickly gained the respect of Torrio and became his number two man. After being shot by an opposing gang member, Torrio left Chicago. Capone became boss of the Ã¢â¬Å"outfit.Ã¢â¬ TorrioÃ¢â¬â¢s men respected Capone and trusted his business decisions. They referred to Capone as Ã¢â¬Å"the big man.Ã¢â¬ In the next five years he expanded his industry of crime. Capone controlled speakeasies, nightclubs, brothels, gambling houses, and much more. His bootlegging provided the city of Chicago with alcohol during prohibition. Capone had a reported income of $100,000,000 a year. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Capone had an intricate spy network throughout Chicago. Crooked police men let him prepare for liquor raids and some of his other men made him aware of assassination plots. He would use hotels as his headquarters and front businesses for a hideout. Capone was always good at successfully knocking off his enemies when they became too powerful. Although he killed men himself, it was much safer for his henchmen to do his dirty work. CaponeÃ¢â¬â¢s men would rent an apartment across the street from their target and gun him down when he stepped outside. These operations were quick and precise, and Capone always had an alibi. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã On St. Valentines Day, 1929, four of CaponeÃ¢â¬â¢s cohorts entered the
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
In the essay Ã¢â¬Å"On Self-RespectÃ¢â¬ by Joan Didion one is confronted by the perception of delusion and self-deception. Throughout the essay Didion uses an array of allusions, images, and diction to persuade us into comprehending the essay and what it is trying to display. The essay evaluates and condemns various allusions that help to convey DidionÃ¢â¬â¢s message that she is trying to get across that when you have self-respect you have more benefits than when you self-reproach. In paragraph two Didion explains how she has not been elected to Phi Beta Kappa and that the Ã¢â¬Å"failure could scarcely have been more predictable or less ambiguous.Ã¢â¬ Didion knew she did not have the grades for it. She explains a past event that helps us understand more about her and why she might feel the need to write an essay over self-respect and self-reproach. Didion creates an image in the readers mind that now because of her past events she had been stripped of her innocence. Didion was so used to having everything go her way but now she realizes that the, Ã¢â¬Å"lights will not always turn greenÃ¢â¬ for her. She now regrets not trying harder and blames herself for not being elected to attend Kappa, which makes her not have any self-respect for herself as a person. Throughout the first half of the essay Didion explains self-respect and how one can be stripped of it but also what self-respect is about. In paragraph four Didion describes that to have no self-respect is to just lie awake during the night and think about all the regrets we have and to blame our self as we lie there not able to turn off the voice in our head. Didion uses the allusions of self-reproach or self-deception in paragraph four. Paragraph five reads, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s our choice to sleep in the bed we make,Ã¢â¬ what Didion is trying to get across is that the bed we make is the future path we set. It is our choice to sleep in it or in other words walk that path to self-respect. This paragraph addresses an image in the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s heads that it is always their choice whether or not to take the path to having the self-respect that they need. The other half of the essay Didion changes to a more persuasive, more experienced, tone about having self-respect. Since Didion has gone through what suggests to be not having self-respect due to her past events she is now try to convince us, the readers, that having no self-respect will get us no where in life. In Paragraph nine it states, Ã¢â¬Å"but when they do play, they know the odds,Ã¢â¬ referring to the people that do have self-respect. This part of the essay is trying to show the readers that people who have self-respect play the fields and take risks and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s one of the reasons self-respect is good for a person. Didion uses her past to tell us that soon enough no one will be there for us after we push them away because its easy to be mad at everyone when you blame yourself all the time. People will no self-respect will no longer be involved with the outside world, which can hurt a multitude of people. We must choose the path that we made that is better for us. In the essay Didion uses a variety of allusions and imagery to prompt the readers that we cannot self-reproach and that self-respect does not come from others opinions but from what we think of our self. Didion wants the readers to apprehend that we have to move on from our mistakes in the past because thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what they are, the past. We cannot change what has happened so we must live now in the present and set our self a path in the future to follow. In the end the readers learn the lesson that they must explore and venture self-respect and the meaning and concept of it to understand why we need it and why we must not blame yourself for the past but to move on in life.
Monday, September 16, 2019
In order for a particular product or service to be successful in the industry, it needs to be clearly positioned within its market. The positioning should reflect the needs of the customers as well as the position of the company in relation to competitors. Depending on the positioning, the marketing team can decide what attributes of the product to amplify in their campaigns and what steps will be required to form the proper connections to the customer.Furthermore, the position adopted by a firm also impacts brand equity, as in, the kinds of associations customers make to the product, their level of loyalty, and brand awareness. The main ethical issue in advertising is the depiction of men and women in their stereotypical gender-roles. Men are usually depicted as powerful, successful, driven and dignified. Women on the other hand are increasing being depicted as sexualized objects often dependent on men. One of the main ethical issues is that in many of the ads the women serve mainly as a Ã¢â¬Å"decorationÃ¢â¬ i. . they have no functional relationship to the product being advertised. For example, Axe is well known for its over sexualization of women in its ads to sell menÃ¢â¬â¢s personal care products. Another trend seems to be the use of only parts of a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s body in advertisements particularly a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s breasts and legs as stated by Jean Kilbourne in her movies Ã¢â¬Å"Killing Us SoftlyÃ¢â¬ . The implications of such practices are even greeter because of the number of ads that consumers are exposed to daily through television, newspapers, magazines and billboards.It is estimated that this number has grown from 500 ads daily in 1970 to 5000 ads a day in 2009 (Johnson, 2009). The messages imparted by ads, if they are repeated over long periods of time as in the case of gender roles in society, can distort perceptions of what is realistic as well as what is right and wrong. Since women are repeatedly cast as submissive sexual objects whose place is primarily at home or in traditional occupations of nurses, teachers, secretaries the ads in a way are telling the society what to think.The primary critical players are the consumers who are being marketed to and the secondary players are the firms marketing the product. The consumers and the society at large are deeply affected by the ethical implications of ads mainly because of the values, beliefs, attitudes, propagated by them. Implicit in these values and beliefs is some level of Ã¢â¬Å"standard settingÃ¢â¬ . For example: in many Vodka ads that primarily market to women, excessive drinking is glamorized and implied as a Ã¢â¬Å"standardÃ¢â¬ behavior wherein women alternate between Ã¢â¬Å"good girl vs bad girlÃ¢â¬ roles.If (and it often is) this message is subconsciously or consciously understood and adopted as a lifestyle, it can have far from positive manifestations such as a binge-drinking culture that is widespread among college students which leads to other consequences such as alcohol poisoning, accidents, and ill physical health of people who try to simulate what they learn from ads, in real life. There is also a disturbing trend of ads romanticizing sexual assault and domestic violence to sell products (Capella, 2010). This can invariably lead to a spread in unhealthy social conditions.Marketing personnel are critical players because they formulate the ads. Some campaign creators do not agree that their actions may be unethical. In fact, they state that the ads reflect consumer behavior and expectations. It is also argued that there is generally Ã¢â¬Å"positiveÃ¢â¬ reaction to beautiful males and females placed in ads which not only increase the attractiveness of the product but also the chances of increased sales precisely because of the employment of the same techniques that are being called unethical (Reichert, T. LaTour, M. S. , Lambiase, J. I. , & Adkins, M. 2007).. The decision alternative is to essentially rethink the kind s of messages that the firm wants to put forward. It is not unethical to use healthy and reasonably beautiful women and men in ads, rather, it is the wholesome vs derogatory manner in which they are shown that makes the ad questionable. Firms should avoid focusing on the sexually provocative body parts of women (and increasingly men) to sell an unrelated product.They should avoid glamorizing undesirable social behaviors such as promiscuousness of both sexes, over-drinking, drugs, or unhealthy lifestyles. In contrast to superficial ads, they should actively seek out methods to connect with consumers on a deeper level than physical attractiveness or sexual gratification. An excellent example of this is DoveÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to touch on a more genuine vein. Furthermore, firms to focus on minimizing the use of Ã¢â¬ËdecorativeÃ¢â¬â¢ male/female i. e. here should be a connection between the product being advertised and the person advertising it. The implications for the critical playe rs are hard to quantify. Women and men have been depicted in their expected roles exhibiting their stereotypical traits for a very long time. One reason this has persisted, unfortunately, is that is a successful method. Everyone wants to beautiful, glamorous, and desired and the marketing industry has picked up these human traits to turn them into profits.Therefore, for the marketing firms, adopting an alternative strategy to work as well as the unethical methods they have been using for so long will be very challenging. However, as Dove has proved, this is not impossible especially in the face of increasing concern over how men and women are depicted by the media. In the long run, a more wholesome strategy can lead to stronger brand equity through increased brand loyalty and positive brand associations. For the consumers, a more ethical and realistic representation of men and women will lead to positive impacts.People may stop exhibiting extreme behaviors to satisfy standards set b y the marketing world and be more self-satisfied, have higher self-esteem and satisfaction with their identities. The objectification is not spread to children, particularly young girls, such as the Oh Lola! perfume by Marc Jacobs. Not only does the model look like an underage girl (which is perhaps intended) but she is sitting suggestively(Exhibit One). Therefore, it becomes necessary to clearly define what is acceptable and what isnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Work Cited Capella, M. L. , Hill, R. , Rapp, J. M. & Kees, J. (2010). The impact of violence against women in advertisements. Journal Of Advertising, 39(4), 37-51. doi:10. 2753/JOA0091-3367390403 Johnson, C. (2009, February 11). Cutting through advertising clutter. Retrieved from http://www. cbsnews. com/8301-3445_162-2015684. html Reichert, T. , LaTour, M. S. , Lambiase, J. I. , & Adkins, M. (2007). A Test of Medi a Literacy Effects and Sexual Objectification in Advertising. Journal Of Current Issues & Research In Advertising (CTC Press), 29 (1), 81-92. Exhibit OneÃ¢â¬âPicture of Marc Jacobs Ad
Sunday, September 15, 2019
What is Poetry? According to W. H. Hudson we all have a sense of what poetry constitutes. There are innumerable definitions of poetry given by poets and critics of poetry and out of which Hudson chooses some famous definitions. They are given below: * Johnson : Ã¢â¬Å"Metrical compositionÃ¢â¬ , it is Ã¢â¬Å"the art of uniting pleasure with truth by calling imagination to the help of reasonÃ¢â¬ * Macaulay: Ã¢â¬Å"we mean the art of employing words in such a manner as to produce an illusion on the imagination, the art of doing by means of words what the painter does by means of coloursÃ¢â¬ * Carlyle: Ã¢â¬Å"We will call Musical thoughtÃ¢â¬ Shelley: Ã¢â¬Å"In a general sense may be defined as the expression of the imaginationÃ¢â¬ * Hazlitt: Ã¢â¬Å"It is the language of the imagination and the passionsÃ¢â¬ * Leigh Hunt: Ã¢â¬Å"The utterance of a passion for truth, beauty, and power, embodying and illustrating its conceptions by imagination and fancy, and modulating its language on the principle of variety in unityÃ¢â¬ * Coleridge: Ã¢â¬Å"Poetry is the antithesis of science, having for its immediate object pleasure, not truthÃ¢â¬ * Wordsworth: Ã¢â¬Å"It is the breath and finer spirit of all knowledge and the impassioned expression which is in the countenance of all scienceÃ¢â¬ * Edgar Allan Poe: Ã¢â¬Å"It is the rhythmic creation of beautyÃ¢â¬ * Keble: Ã¢â¬Å"A vent for overcharged feeling or a full imaginationÃ¢â¬ * Doyle: Ã¢â¬Å"It expresses our dissatisfaction with what is present and close at handÃ¢â¬ * Ruskin: Ã¢â¬Å"The suggestion by the imagination, of noble grounds for the noble emotionsÃ¢â¬ * Prof. Courthope: Ã¢â¬Å"The art of producing pleasure by the just expression of imaginative thought and feeling in metrical languageÃ¢â¬ * Mr. Watts-Dunton: Ã¢â¬Å" The concrete and artistic expression of the human mind in emotional and rhythmical languageÃ¢â¬ * Matthew Arnold: Ã¢â¬Å"It is simply the most delightful and per fect form of utterance that human words can reachÃ¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"It is nothing less than the most perfect speech of man that in which he comes nearest to being able to utter the truthÃ¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"It is a criticism of life under the conditions fixed for such a criticism by the laws of poetic truth and poetic beautyÃ¢â¬ As Hudson state when we look at them critically, and compare them with one another, certain disturbing facts about them become clear. Commenting on these definitions Hudson concludes they are almost distracting in their variety because the subject is approached from many different points of view. Some, strictly speaking, fail to define, because they express rather what is poetical in general, wherever it may be found, than what is specifically poetry. Some, on the other hand, are too narrow and exclusive, because they recognize only the particular kind of poetry in which the writer happened to be personally interested.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Why do you think so few women and racial minorities have been elected to Congress? That is a question that can come with many different answers. In my opinion, I believe that there is a different reason between women and minorities for their lack of success in Congress. Both reasons involve the past, but in different ways. The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate. There are 435 members in the House of the Representatives. The Senate has 100 members. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election. The main reason why women and minorities are not popular in Congress is because of descriptive representation. Descriptive representation is a belief that constituents are represented effectively by legislators who are similar to them (Challenge of Democracy). The characters that qualify are race, ethnicity, religion, or gender. That is the main factor why there are so few women and minorities in Congress. Due to the past, the demographic characteristic is a white male. As far as African American activity in government goes, a lot of progress has been made. In the past slavery kept blacks from being involved at all. They slowly made progress when they were counted as 3/5th of a person. Then they moved on to being free persons, and from then the African Americans moved on. There were many influential blacks to America. Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa Parks were two very important people. They changed America for the better and helped African Americans advance in life. African Americans began serving in Congress during the Reconstruction Era after slaves were freed and granted citizen rights. Free black men gained political representation in the South. White Democrats took back political power and tried to return white supremacy. Legislatures lowered voting for blacks by passing tougher voter laws. As a result of the African American Civil Rights Movement, Congress passed laws to end segregation and protect civil rights and voting rights. When Congress changed the Voting Rights Acts in 1982, the states made districts that put minorities together. They thought it would make it a better chance for African Americans and Hispanics to be elected into office. They fixed the Ã¢â¬Å"make-upÃ¢â¬ of the districts. Women were never seen as a necessity in the business world in the past. They were not useful when it came to farming in menÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. They were always needed to do the household chores and making sure the kids were being taken care of. Men believed that women were not as strong as men. It was as if they were not as important as men. Women were not allowed to vote until 1920, and before then not many women were involved in the government (Women in Congress). If you could not choose who was going to make decisions for you, why would you even be concerned? There was only one state, New Jersey, who allowed women to vote for 17 years (1790-1807). The only way they could vote was if they fit the land requirements. I believe though that the reason why there are so few women and minorities in Congress is because America is not ready to change. They are stuck on the way things were before and never trying new things. People are not willing to even give a woman the time of day, even if she has great ideas. It would be someone they brush off because women arenÃ¢â¬â¢t smarter than men. Minorities are not even considered an option in Congress just because of their title as a Ã¢â¬Å"minorityÃ¢â¬ . There are a minor amount of minorities and it is hard to find the ones that are determined to better themselves in life. It is almost as if theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve given up on trying to become an image breaker. Everyone believes in the descriptive representation and that is why minorities are not involved in the government (Congress vs. Minorities). As the years have progressed though there is one man that I must give credit to for making a huge advancement for minorities in government, Barack Obama. He had many obstacles to overcome to get there. There were many people that told him he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stand a chance in the race. He was determined and he now is sitting in the office as President of the United States. Demographic groups have always been a large role in Congress. The groups consist of race, gender, ethnicity, or religion. The groups vote for people that are in the considerable same group as them. For example, if a Catholic runs against a Jew, most Catholics would vote for the Catholic. In 2050, there will be remarkably many different things going on in the world. There is a chance that a black woman will be the President. A Hispanic male might be the Speaker of the House. Global Warming could be done for, and New Orleans could possibly be submerged underwater. All possibilities of what the world could be like in 40 years. I believe that the world will have a new outlook on things and demographic groups will not exist so prevalently. I think people will be able to make decisions based on their own likings and not what their Ã¢â¬Å"groupÃ¢â¬ is doing. People are becoming more independent in their choices in 2010, so 40 years from now the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s mindset will be free. To support my reasoning on people being independent now is through the example of Obama winning the presidential election. I believe that people stepped out of their demographic group on their voting choice. Yes, most African Americans voted for Obama, but even the African Americans affiliated with a different religion voted for him. White people stepped out of their religion and race to vote for Obama. I still believe demographic groups will exist, just not so commonly. Those that are stuck to traditions and keeping things the way they were will still be apart of the group. They will consist of less people, but there will be enough to rock a vote. Hopefully, the demographic groups will just completely wipe out and let people use their minds. I want Americans to be able to make their own decisions. The reason why there are so few women and minorities in Congress has to do with choices made my Americans. African Americans that want to run for a position in Congress probably find it pointless due to the demographic groups. They feel that they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t waste their time since they already know the outcome especially if they run against a white male. Hopefully having Obama in office will give other minorities and women incentive to pursue their dream to be involved in the government. The entire controversy will continue for years though. These have just been my personal opinion mixed in with facts. The ideas for the future I have are very well thought out, and I hope to see the progress in the future. If African Americans can go from being slaves to running the United States; I think it is more than possible for people to become more independent in their own thoughts and decisions.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Of Mice And Men by John SteinbeckYou will need to develop an argumentative thesis statement based on the idea of The American - Research Paper Example Crooks, also desiring not to be left alone on the ranch, wants to join their dream of independence. CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, before she dies, confesses her dream to be a movie star. In fact, the only characters that do not admit to such a dream are those who stand atop the social and economic hierarchy. Curly, for instance, enjoys his place of power and represents a repressive force in the story insofar as he suppresses and controls the dreams of others. These are dreams of independence that reflect the concept of the American dream generally; however, at least from Of Mice and Men, the reader comes to realize that such dreams are economic, and spiritual, impossibilities. The impossibility of the stereotypical American dream is only strengthened by the overarching economic climate in which the men live. As Crooks tells George, Ã¢â¬Å"Nobody never gets to heaven, and nobody gets no landÃ¢â¬ (Steinbeck 74). What Crooks says here is particular interesting because it indicates that men ar e both economically and spiritually deprived of what they truly need. While George and Lennie are seeking the seemingly simple goal of acquiring their own land and independence, CrooksÃ¢â¬â¢ observation is that such land would provide more than substance and bodily satisfaction.
Thursday, September 12, 2019
AFA assing1 - Article Example The most significant aspect that contributes to the bad attitude towards Africa is the skin color and language. Historically, Africans have been described as Ã¢â¬Å"the BlackÃ¢â¬ and that notion has brought about huge attitude discrimination concerning African. Racial discrimination has been served to Africans for a long time. Sometimes, Africans are deemed to be mentally retarded or creatures that are still evolving. My role as a budding scholar is to highlight some pretty things that emanate from Africa. In this case, the picture of Africa will be drawn again by demarking phenomenon aspects of Africa such as the attractive culture, good geographical sceneries and people with bright minds. African concepts of God has emanated from a very close affiliation with nature and absolute dependence on the land. Since the nature is very much dependent on the rain, Africa developed a desire to appease the being that brings rains and make the nature attractive. In this case, they realized that there is a supreme that controls the welfare of the nature. They referred to this divine being as God. Monotheism is the concept used to describe the existence of only one Supreme Being known as God. In this case, every person worships the supreme Being making declaration that there exist none-other to be worshiped. A good example of monotheism is the
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Sunset - Essay Example The only sound one hears is the splash of water and the signing of birds. Birds are seen that are returning to their nests after struggling for one more day of their survival. One sees them live in present only and this makes an individual wonder how they have no knowledge of their tomorrow and yet they are happy and happier than an individual can ever. One realizes how far we have run from this present in our striving for a better tomorrow. And this sudden realization at a beach is enough to bring a smile on our face. While taking a short walk on the shore when the sun is setting below the horizon, one realizes how one more day of our life has gone by. One wonders what he was when the sun rose today, and what we are now when the sun is setting down. One wonders what have he has achieved and what is the purpose of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life because this train of thought leads one to the answer of what he wants to achieve. It is the sweet and beautiful moment that an individual actually achieves by visualizing this sunset. The joy of every moment doubles when one shares it with a loved one. There is no place better than a beach and no time better than the sunset to celebrate the mere existence of the significance of another person. It is a perfect time to express oneÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings and let the other person know how valued they are. Away from the noise of the world, hearts meet right when the sun decides to settle down and the water decides to rise. One realizes how lonely and meaningless the world would be if it was not for our other half. Souls connect when you stand by the seaside, holding hands with your beloved and watching the sun go down. A sunset is not just a sunset. The setting sun, orange sky, signing birds, the sound of water, creates a perfect harmony that soothes an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s soul. It is where the relentless mind finds peace,
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Personal Experience - Assignment Example During the winter holidays, I had to seek assistance from friend doctor. Luckily enough, addiction to it had not taken deep root enough. The doctor proposed one month intensive medication care and with regular visiting. Change of lifestyle was also important when one is in the process of quitting. I had to avoid places where people smoked a lot until the day the doctor confirmed to me that I was strong enough to go to such places. Back at home, it was not easy. Parents had to put me under curfew. I was expected to stay at home the extent to which I used to interact with friends reduced. Having no place to go, I spent a lot of time home just watching movies and series. Smoking eats on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s health, as a result, I was put under heavy diet so as to regain weight. Personally, I embarked on activities like washing dishes and update my blog on the consequences of smoking. The point is I had to do everything to change. Daily activities, like running up and down the stairs really help ed in the process of quitting. I am now back to school and doing well in class. It took me two weeks of intensive medication and daily exercise to stop smoking and three week for the side effects to subdue. Teacher and parents became concerned about the performance and questioned me. However, being cleaver, I would hide everything from them. This didnÃ¢â¬â¢t last for long; I had to look for a permanent solution that would enable me quickly stops smoking. A friend advised me to buy Bupropion, a drug believed to help smokers quit smoking.
Monday, September 9, 2019
Difference between service base and population base - Research Paper Example As net CNU is a vital thing in estimation of population counts there is much concentration in population census. It starts with a summarized census collection process description and universe population definition and summarizes with processes used for CNU (Bureau of Census, 2010) On the other hand, service base is system of information for managing service processes. The services should be for IT services, technical support and servicing. It focuses knowledge from the management service of a company into a single source, allowing it for effective usage and sharing. The service base operator application gives users and consumers with online back up with all benefits arising from management process. It is a 100% application on website that uses internet in communicating with customers. The communication provided is through secured protocols. The IT system is completely configurable from a basic solution to value that is full for problem management and incident management including services of configuration database. A successful description of solved problems is easily exported to knowledge that is separated into classes by various usersÃ¢â¬â¢ and products access rights (Foulkes,
Interpretation and Analysis of the From hope to Hopelessness by Margaret Wheatly - Essay Example is will also focus on the techniques that Wheatley employs as a function of delivering her method and whether or not these techniques are successful or not. Finally, the response piece will focus on how the essay made this student feel after reading it. Accordingly, it is the hope of this student that the forthcoming analysis will not only provide something of a personal take with respect to Margaret WheatleyÃ¢â¬â¢s work, it is my further hope that the reader will come to gain a more informed understanding for the tactics and approach that Wheatley uses to engage the reader. The first strategy that Wheatley employs is with respect to providing a pathos filled introduction that discusses the level of depression and hopelessness that she has been feeling with regard to the state of the current world. Referencing the human brutality, environmental destruction, and lack of vision for the way in which these issues might be addressed, Wheatley confesses that she battles with depression at the specter of these issues and how they impact upon her and the remainder of the human race. This is an especially interesting and effective approach to the issues at hand. The underlying reason for this has to do with the fact that Wheatley engages the reader in an understanding of the issues that have driven her to write the piece, encourages a degree of empathy from the reader, and then expands the need for discussion based upon the fact that these very same issues affect almost each and every stakeholder on the planet equally. The rhetorical strength of the introductory paragraphs is also important to note; due in part to the fact that it is within these paragraphs that Wheatley raises the key questions she will go about answering during the course of the remainder of the essay. For instance, the question of whether fighting hopelessness is a worthy human goal, whether human labor means anything, and whether or not action or inaction ultimately rank the same are all briefly
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Critical Discussion Paper - Dissertation Example While a wide array of pedagogical techniques and tools are available, this paper discusses the three major ones, viz. Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) and Mastery Learning, Direct instruction and General case programming. The strengths and weaknesses of each of these strategies are highlighted. ABA is today a vast treasure trove of theory, concepts and models and has evolved through systematic research and refined theories (Graziano, 1971; Maurice, Green & Luce 1996). It is a scientific breaking down of skills and tasks into small, manageable, distinct components which are taught in a hierarchical fashion. This approach establishes a relationship between the antecedent, behavior and consequence. Behavior change and improvement is attempted through reinforcers such as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, differential reinforcement of other behaviors, non contingent reinforcement and differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors (Cooper et al., 1987; Fischer, Iwata, & Mazaleski, 1997). Rewards are used to reinforce desired behaviors, redirect or discourage inappropriate behaviors. ABA is now recognized as the most effective type of therapy for children with Autism and related disabilities (Lovaas, 1987; McEachin, Smith, & Lovaas, 1993; Maurice, Green, & Luce, 1996). Over the past thirty years, several thousand published research studies have documented the effectiveness ofÃ ABAÃ across a wide cross section of populations, interventionists, settings and behaviors. The various ABA techniques in use are the ABC method or discrete trial instruction, behavior chains and backward chaining, high probability requests, behavioral contracts etc. The major strengths of this approach are that it facilitates identification, observation and measurement of behavior. ABA is structured and highly sequential. Alternative explanations are ruled out which fosters unambiguous, clear learning. Problem behaviors can be easily and effectively countered through a wi de array of interventions. Measurement on the efficacy of the learning approach is easy and replication is also possible. The downside of ABA is that a behavioral intervention emphasizes control and exclusively utilizes reinforcers such as punishment. Each of the three schools of thought Ã¢â¬â humanist, behavioral and cognitive, has merits and shortcomings and may not work well in all situations (Tomei, 1998). The humanistic approach of Maslow and Rogers suffer from absence of clear design or direction in the classroom. There are also structural constraints in the information to be delivered. Behaviorism uses rewards for learning and this might discourage the student from learning for its own sake. Individual student attention span may also be impacted. The cognitive perspective featuring the "age stages" propounded by Piaget and Erikson, does not clearly explain the progress and movement from one stage to the next and how the various stages are linked to maturation. Lack of soci al influence is also a clear weakness. Mastery Learning is based on the concept of achieving mastery over one concept or skill before moving on to the other. The major positives of this technique are that it is highly scientific and the tasks are structured and ranked, according to the level of difficulty. It ensures that the student masters a concept before moving on
Saturday, September 7, 2019
Energy Resources Essay Trade Ã¢â¬â offs for the energy resources Large scale hydroelectric power This taps the abundant energy resource presented to humanity by Nature in the form of water streams flowing under potential energy gradient presented by natural topography. This energy resource is practically free, practically renewable and exploiting this form of energy hurts the environs to the minimal extent. We can term it as green energy. This form of energy is very advantageous of economic development in remote and hilly terrain, where it is not easy to transport other forms of energy. This has disadvantages and limitations too. Construction of large dam required for large hydroelectric power in many cases leads to rehabilitation of a large population. A large dam (water mass) may lead to unduly high pressure on the tectonic plates and cause earth quakes with disastrous consequences. Besides, such plants have to be constructed in remote and hilly terrains, which is not an easy task in itself. Operation of the plant is made difficult by the silt that comes with the flowing water during rainy season. Passive solar power This converts solar energy into useful form of energy say heat which can be utilized for room heating, water heating etc. This is renewable or non exhaustive form of energy. This is highly eco friendly or green form of energy. This is distributed form of energy in the sense that this is consumed where it is produced, therefore, issues pertaining to energy transportation is not at all there. The features for exploiting can be designed in a building during construction or even retrofitted afterwards. What we get is heat only, which is not very useful form of energy. This is highly localized and can not be transported. This is not useful during night. It is not so easy to incorporate features for exploiting this form of energy in an existing building. This is not at all useful for those regions devoid of ample sunlight. Active solar power This converts solar energy into electrical energy by using photovoltaic cells. This is also renewable or non Ã¢â¬â exhaustive form of energy. This is green or eco friendly form of energy. This can be stored using batteries. This is also highly distributed form of energy as an active solar panel can be made of each household. This is working even when sun is not there i.e. during night or cloudy hours as the electrical energy can be stored in batteries. The disadvantages are very low conversion efficiency of solar energy into electrical energy. Small scale of solar power plants; large scale plants are yet become a reality and therefore, limited applications. Besides, toxic materials are required for construction of photovoltaic cells required for active solar power. Wind Power This converts energy of naturally flowing air current or wind into electricity. This is also renewable or non Ã¢â¬â exhaustive form of energy. This is green or eco friendly as it causes no harm to nature. This is available on large and industrial as well as small domestic scales. This can be very useful for development of regions devoid of other energy resources. This energy resource is not easily predictable or controllable. This is prone to seasonal variation as wind pattern follows a seasonal variation. The wind turbine is noisy.