Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Dear Parents You must be informed about the laws that Current Legislation in UK produced in order to protect the children and young people. Current Legislation 1. Children Act (2004) identify five outcomes for children 1. Education Act (1993) Parents of children under 2 years have the right to ask for the child to be formally assessed 2. Sex Discrimination Act (1975) Ensure that individuals are not discriminated against on the grounds of their sex 3. Race Relation Act (1976) Equality of opportunity must be promoted 4. Public Health Act (1984) Covers the notification and exclusion periods for certain infectious diseases 5. Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulation (RIDDOR) (1995) Specify certain accidents and incidents that must be by law, reported 6. Equality Act 2010 Aims to ensure that rights of disabled individuals are met 7. Special Educational Need and Disability Act (2004) Protects children from discrimination on the basis of disability , and settings must make reasonable adjustments to their provision to meet the need and right of the child 8. Code of Practice for First Aid (1997) Gives guidance on the provision of trained first aiders and first aid provision 9. Protection of the Children Act (1998) Requires a list to be kept of people considered to be unsuitable to work with children 10. Care of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations (2002) Deal with the identification, storage and use of potentially harmful substances, such as cleaning fluids 11. Childcare Act (2006) the law that sets out: Duties on local authorities to improve outcomes for children and to ensure access to information about provision in their area Legal frameworks for regulation and inspection of provision for children from birth to age 17 The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS): this is the framework for the delivery of quality integrated care and education for children from birth to the 31 August following their fifth birthday. The EYFS includes requirements for the provision of young childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare, learning and development that all providers must meet, as well as good practice guidance. Dear Parents You must be informed about the role of Regulatory Bodies that made all the inspection, investigation and enforcements to my premises in order to improve the overall well-being of the children. OFSTED Ofsted is the Office for Standards in Education, ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Services and Skills. They report directly to Parliament and they are independent and impartial. Ofsted is responsible for the inspection of a range of educations and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s services, and for the inspection and regulation of registered Early Years and Childcare provision.Ã The aim of all this work is to promote improvement and value for money in the services they inspect and regulate, so that children and young people, parents and carriers benefits.Ã The registration process with Ofsted looks at my ability and suitability if I deliver the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS). This is the framework for the delivery of quality integrated care and education for children from birth to the 31 August following their fifth birthday. The EYFS includes requirements for the provision of young childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare, learning and development that all providers must meet, as well as good practice guidance. An Ofsted inspector will make regular visits to my premises and discuss about how I will meet the welfare requirements: The Inspection report produced by Ofsted will covers the followings: If, I and every other person looking after children on my premises, are suitable to care for children Every person living or working on my premises is suitable to be in regular contact with children My premises is suitable for looking after children If, I meet or will meet all the welfare, learning and development requirements of Early Years Foundation Stage and all the regulations and any conditions of registration imposed by. After an inspection, Ofsted publishes a report on Childminder home based environment website. In addition to written comments on a number of areas, schools and childminder premises are assessed on each area and overall on a 4-point scale: 1 (Outstanding), 2 (Good), 3 (Satisfactory) 4 (Inadequate). Ofsted Register Early Years Childminders to: Protect the children Ensure that they meet the requirements of Early Years Register Ensure that they provide good outcomes for children that keep children healthy, safe, ensure that they enjoy what they do and achieve well, make a positive contribution and develop skills for the future Promote high quality in the provision of care and learning and development Provide reassurance to parents Failure to complying with this welfare requirements would attract complains or concerns from parents or other people side. The law gives to Ofsted as regulatory body a range of powers to regulate childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s social care services, which set out the action that can take in order to enforce compliance with the law. They consider the particular circumstances of each case before deciding what action they need to take. However, it is very important for me not to lose sight of the overriding principle of ensuring the welfare of children and young people.
Abstract Today, many safety-critical applications are controlled by computer software. Therefore effective testing tools are required to provide a high degree of safety and to reduce severe failures too minimum. The paper examines existing regulating standards in safety-critical systems. By comparing different software testing methods the requirements and challenges in safety-critical software testing are being evaluated. The QUICKIES standard serves as the mall regulatory framework for all separately systems and provides the basis for the creation of application- and Interdependently tankards.Moreover it defines certain safety integrity levels depending on the field of application and recommends testing methods according to these levels. In model- based safety testing a usage model with restricted space state domain is used to generate representative test cases. Statistical testing is a mathematical approach that uses a high number of test cases to reach a significant result. The ma in challenge of all safety-related testing methods Is to reduce testing time and complexity without distorting the significance of the test.These can for example be transportation systems, power plants, and medical applications. As people's lives depend on the correct function of such control systems and their software, thorough testing is required before they can be admitted to operation. There are many different software testing methods. Most of them only analyze the probability of a failure but do not value its severity. However, in safety-critical systems a failure that has severe consequences, even if it is extremely rare, can not be accepted. Therefore testing in this field has to be adopted accordingly.The purpose of this paper is to find and compare the latest methods for safety-critical footwear testing and to identify the most common industry standard in this field. Moreover the requirements and challenges in safety-critical software testing will be elaborated. At the begi nning the paper will provide definitions that are required for the understanding of the subsequent chapters. After that, an introduction to the JUICE 508 safety standard, which serves as a basis for most industry-specific standards, is given.The chapter Ã¢â¬Å"Testing MethodsÃ¢â¬ will address some of the latest safety-related software testing methods in detail. 5 Definitions 2 Definitions 2. 1 Reliability and Safety In safety critical systems both, reliability and safety are required to achieve the goals of dependability. However, reliability and safety are two different attributes of dependability. The reliability, R(t) , of a system is a function of time. It is defined as the conditional probability that the system will perform its intended function in a defined way over a given time period and under certain specified and assumed conditions.The most used parameter to characterize reliability is the Mean Time To Failure (MATT). The safety, S(t), of a system is defined as the pro bability that a system ill either perform its functions correctly or will discontinue its functions in a way that does not interrupt the operation of other systems or Jeopardize the safety of any people associated with the system . Based on these definitions, in reliability testing all failures are weighted equally, whereas in safety testing the failures are weighted according to their severity.Therefore, a reliable system may be quite unsafe and a safe system may be very unreliable. 2. 2 Safety-critical System States very complex to generate. As many states are unreachable or very difficult to reach hey can be reduced to a relatively small number of representative system states. These states are grouped in three subsets: Normal State Subset (NUNS), Fail-Safe State subset (FPS) and Risky state subset (IRS). Their relationships are: s=Unusualness; 6 Their inter-dependability is described as a Markova chain (see figure 1) . Figure 1 : Three-state Markova Model for Safety-critica l Systems(Source: 2. Markova Chain Usage Model The Markova chain usage model describes the possible usage of a software based on a predicted environment. It can be used to generate statistical test cases and to estimate the software reliability. In an Markova model the transition from operation I to operation J can be denoted by an ordered pair . Let be the transition probability from operation I to operation J, with and EX=I .. N p(is)=1, where n is the number of operations. The transitions and transition probabilities can be represented in the form of a matrix .Each specific usage of the program corresponds to a path X=(XI, XX,Ã¢â¬ ¦ Xi) in the Markova chain where Xi corresponds to the I-the operation. P(Xi, X]) determines the next executed operation J after execution of operation I. Since the operations are random rabbles, each path X=(XI, XX,Ã¢â¬ ¦ ) forms a stochastic process. For a particular path x=(ox, XSL ,Ã¢â¬ ¦ ), the corresponding path execution probability is : 7 pox pop , x 3 Standards There exist both national and international standards and guidelines at different depths and classifications which define requirements for safety-related technologies. Yester and provides the basis for the creation of application- and underspecified standards. It includes more than 500 pages of normative and informative specifications and proposals. Nowadays most safety-related standards are based on he JUICE 508 in combination with the previously applicable requirements . The JUICE 508 defines so called Safety Integrity Levels (Sills) which serve as a measure for the safety requirements on a certain system. The following table shows the different SILLS as well as the corresponding probability of failure and application examples.Probability of Failure One Failure in x Years Consequences Application Example The last three parts, are informative and include practical examples which should help to simplify the application of the standard. The Ã¢â¬ËCE 61 508 describes the complete life cycle of safety-related systems from planning to decommissioning and refers to all aspects related to the use and requirements for electrical / electronic / programmable electronic systems (E / E / PEE) for separately functions . According to the focus of this paper only the parts relating to software testing are mentioned in the following paragraph. Figure 2 shows the verification and validation process in software development according to the JUICE 508 standard.The E/E/PEE system safety requirements are applied both on the system architecture and the software specifications. Every level in the system architecture verifies if it meets the requirements of the next higher layer (I. E. Coding fulfills module design requirements, module design fulfills software yester design requirements etc. ). Moreover each system architecture layer is tested by a specific test. As soon as the test circuit is closed successfully the software can be validated. The st andard also recommends and rates certain test methods according to the required SILL. In order to meet the requirements of the Ã¢â¬ËCE standard a series.Test methods comprised in the Ã¢â¬ËCE 61 508 are categorized as follows : Failure analysis (I. E. Cause consequence programs) Dynamic analysis and testing (I. E. Test case execution from model-based test case generation) Functional and black box testing (I. . Equivalence classes and input partition testing, including boundary value analysis) Performance testing (I. E. Response timings and memory constraints) Static analysis (I. E. Static analysis of run time error behavior) 9 Figure 2: Ã¢â¬ËCE 61 508-3 Verification and Validation Process(Source: 10 Testing Methods 4 Testing Methods There are many different software testing methods.A detailed introduction to all different methods would be far beyond the scope of this paper. Therefore the author will only mention two methods he deems most relevant in the field of safety-relat ed software testing. Finally both methods are compared and their possible application areas are evaluated. 4. 1 Model-based Safety Testing In model-based testing explicit behavior models that encode the intended behavior of a system and its environment are used. These models generate pairs of inputs and outputs. The output of such a model represents the expected output of the system under test (SOT). Mineral model-based testing method. The system safety-related behavior is defined in the safety requirements specification. Test cases are derived from a safety model that is extracted from the SHUT and from formal safety requirements. This model encodes the intended behavior and maps each possible input to the corresponding output. Safety test selection criteria relate to the functional safety of the safety- critical system, to the structure of the model (state coverage, transition coverage), and also to a well defined set of system faults.Safety test case specifications are used to fo rmalize the safety test selection criteria and render them operational. For the given safety model and the safety test case specification, an automatic safety test case generator and optimizer generates the safety test case suite. Finally, the concreted input part of a test case is submitted to the SHUT and the SOT's output is recorded. The concentration of the input part of a test case is performed by a safety test engine. Besides executing the safety case, it can also compare the output of the SHUT with the expected output as provided by the safety test case . 1 Figure 3: Model-based Safety Testing according Gang You et al. (Source: Test Case Generation One of the most commonly tools for test case generation are model checking techniques. The main purpose of model checking is to verify a formal safety property (given as a logic formula) on a system model. In test case generation, model checking is used in order to find violations of certain formal safety properties. Safety mode ls of safety-critical software systems may have a huge number of states. Therefore the greatest challenge when using a model checker is to cope with the state space explosion.As a countermeasure, Gang You et al. Ã¢â¬Ës approach applies the safety model, which is derived from SHUT and certain safety requirements. The model 12 limits the number of states by splitting them into three subsets (NUNS, FPS, IRS) containing only representative states (see 2. X). Moreover the safety model encodes he intended behavior, and from its structure, safety test cases can be derived. It thereby restricts the possible inputs into the SHUT and the set of possible separately behaviors of the SOT.Hence, to reduce the amount of testing and guarantee the quality of testing the model checker will search those most frequently entered states and generate the corresponding safety test cases without searching the whole state spaces. The selection of states is based on the safety requirements (Sills). Generall y speaking, the safety model can be seen as a test selection criterion generate safety-related test cases. Figure 4 shows the corresponding flow chart. 1 . The system safety model in the form of a finite state machine (FSML) is transformed into the input language of the model checker tool (SPIN) 2.Each test requirement of a given safety criterion is formulated as a temporal logic expression (LET). 3. Based on the Markova model of a system, the state space is divided into three subsets. 4. In term of these subsets, the negation of each expression of the formula is verified by the model checker. If there is an execution path in the model that does not satisfy the negated formula then it is presented by the model checker as a counter-example. This path becomes a test sequence that satisfies the original test requirement. 5.The inputs and outputs that form the executable test case are extracted from the counter-example or are derived by a corresponding guided simulation of the model. 13 Figure 4: Test Case Generation Framework according Gang You et al. (Source: 4. 2 Statistical Testing As already mentioned in 2. 1 reliability is defined as the conditional probability that the system will perform its intended function. This chapter will link the reliability of a system with the Markova usage model (see 2. 3). Let f: be a function that shows the failure probability of a software. The argument D represents the possible usage set of the software.Each element AXED is a usage path from quo (initial operation) to send (final operation) The relation between software reliability R and failure probability F is: R=l -F (2). In the assumed model the failure behavior of the software only depends on its usage path X and not on the input. This means that the input domain corresponding to the used X is homogeneous. The simplest way of obtaining unbiased reliability estimation of the software is to select N test paths XSL, XX, Ã¢â¬ ¦ , CNN according to the usage model. The exult of the function f(Xi) is 1 if the path fails and O otherwise.Then the arithmetic 14 mean of f(Xi) is an unbiased estimate PEP(f(X)), which is the mathematical expectation of the software failure probability under transition matrix P. Hence, the software reliability can be expressed as R=l -PEP(f(X)) . Critical operations are infrequently executed in real applications. This generates the problem that development organizations have to spend too much time when performing adequate statistical testing. Although one can overcome these drawbacks by increasing the execution probabilities of critical operations during statistical entire software under test. Yang Going et al. 3] found a possible approach to overcome this problem: Importance Sampling (IS) Based Safety-critical Software Statistical Testing Acceleration. IS Based Safety-critical Software Statistical Testing Acceleration This chapter presents the Is-based software statistical testing acceleration method. It ensures that the cr itical operations tested adequately by adjusting the transition probabilities in the matrix of the usage model, and at the same time, produces the unbiased reliability of the software under test. The IS technique reduces simulation run times hen estimating the probabilities of rare events by Monte Carlo simulations .For complex software with a large model matrix, the simulation procedure is often extremely time consuming. To overcome this problem, Yang Going et al. Ã¢â¬Ës approach adopts a simulated annealing algorithm to calculate the optimal matrix Q. This widely used optimization method employs stochastic techniques to avoid being trapped in local optimal solution. The 16 exact mathematical explanation of this algorithm is complex and would be out of the scope of this paper.  4. 3 Method Comparison Although model-based and statistical testing follow completely different approaches, the challenges are very similar.Both methods have to limit the extent and complexity of tes ting. Model-based testing reduces the number of test cases by restricting the state space domain of the Markova chain usage model. Whereas statistical testing reduces the number by changing the relation between critical and normal test cases with help off likelihood ratio. 5 Conclusion Today an increasing number of safety-critical applications are controlled by computer software. Therefore effective testing tools are required to provide a high degree of safety and to reduce severe failures to a minimum. The paper focused on
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
IntroductionThis paper is concerned with the economic consideration of one of the South American states and analyzes the impact of an economic concern on that peculiar South American state that has been chosen and identifies the tendency of the economic concern with in specified part on the footing of informations sets accumulate from the beginning. The south American states has major impact on American economic system and the economic concern of one of an of import state raise our organic structure of cognition sing the economic tendency in that peculiar state and its impact on overall economic system every bit good.South American StateThe economic system of South America consists of 12 states with three districts and comprise of 6 % of population in the universe. I have choose Brazil among other South American states as Brazil is the largest South American state and Brazil is one of the fastest turning economic systems of the universe. It is ranked at 5th topographic point in the universe sing population and geographical part and fifth largest economic system sing GDP in the universe. The economic concern of Brazil is efficaciously contributes to universe economic system and interesting tendency of economic system can be seen. ( Abreu, 2005 ) .Economic ConcernAmong four economic concern including GDP, measures of specific Goods and services gross Domestic Product & A ; Acirc ; ( GDP ) , and unemployment rising prices I have selected rising prices. Inflation is an of import economic concern that will consequence the economic system in great extend and rising prices rate of a state economic system is an of import index for a state growing prospective. Inflation means rise in the general monetary value degree of the state and loss the existent value of money as fewer trade goods will purchase with each extra unit of currency. Inflation straight associate to the economic productiveness and has positive and negative both consequence on economic system as it create economic uncertainness which may deter salvaging and investing. High monetary values of general trade goods and billboard will be its largest disadvantage. In positive sense it may promote not pecuniary investing. But the rising prices rate demands to be control in order to prolong state economic system.Inflation tendency in BrazilThe rising prices rate in Brazil is fluctuating over the old ages. No consistent tendency can be seen in the rising prices rate Acs past twelvemonth informations support this premise. Harmonizing to the informations displayed by ( IPCA ) in 2002 the rising prices rate was 12.53 % that is rather high rate. Then the diminishing tendency of rising prices rate can be seen in Brazil economic system as 9.3 % in 2003, 7.6 % in 2004, 5.69 % in 2005, and 3.14 % in 2006 that is least in this decennary. Then the little increasing t endency can be seen in rate of rising prices. 4.46 % can be seen in 2007 and 5.91 in 2008. The fluctuating tendency can be seen in this scope in coming old ages every bit good. ( Inflation Statistical tabular array )Statistical TableInflation ( IPCA )200212.53 %20039.30 %20047.60 %20055.69 %20063.14 %20074.46 %20085.91 %Past two old ages Inflation TrendPast two old ages monthly rising prices rate tendency can be seen from this graph that shows the monthly frequence of the rising prices rate. The graph bars shows the tendency of rising prices from twelvemonth 2011 that is 6.01 % . The increasing incline can be seen from March, 2011 up to October, 2011. Inflation rate at the month of October is the highest that is 7.31 % . Then the control execution on rising prices increasing tendency can be seen from 7.31 % to the deep low rate at 4.92 % in July, 2012 that is complemented to Brazil economic system. The upward Trent at semi one-year bases can be seen in Brazil economic system. The la st recorded rising prices rate of 6.15 % that is rather high. Brazil authorities mark rising prices rate is 4.5 % with the asset and subtraction tolerance border of 2 % in it. The high rising prices tendency is of import consideration for the authorities as increasing rising prices rate impact the economic system in deep roots and do the investing and salvaging hard. Peoples buying power will be effected that will consequence their criterion of life and indulge the poorness degree in the state as trade goods will be hard to buy with even more money in manus because due to rising prices state will lose its existent money value. ( De Paiva Abreu, 2005 ) .Harmonizing to IBGE study it is recorded from 1980 the Brazil rising prices tendency has gone through assorted fluctuations. Historical information shows norm of 411.8 % Brazil rising prices rate that reached at highest rate of rising prices of 6821.3 % in April 1990 that was the highest rate for all clip. The low rising prices rate o f 1.7 per centum was found in December 1998. The step used to cipher rising prices is consumer monetary value index. Brazil of import part in consumer monetary value index are baccy, nutrient and intoxicant that covers 31 % of entire, 15 per centum by conveyance sector and communicating carries 5 % . . ( Brazil Inflation Rate )Statistical Evidence comparing assorted states rising prices rateInflation Rate of assorted states is demoing the Brazil high rate of rising prices as comparison to other states except India that has the rising prices Rate o f 6.62. An increasing tendency is rather endangering for Brazilian authorities for economic growing and required close consideration to command the rate in hereafter in order to stabilise the economic system. Top Economy Last Previous Highest Lowest Unit of measurement Mention Frequency ChartAustralia2.20 2.00 23.90 -1.30 Percentage Dec/2012 QuarterlyBrazil6.15 5.84 6821.31 1.65 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlyCanada0.50 0.80 21.60 -17.80 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlyChina2.00 2.50 28.40 -2.20 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlyEuro Area2.00 2.20 5.00 -0.70 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlyFrance1.20 1.30 18.80 -0.70 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlyGermany1.70 2.00 11.40 -7.63 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlyIndia6.62 7.18 34.68 -11.31 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlyDutch east indies4.57 4.30 82.40 -1.17 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlyItaly2.20 2.31 25.64 -2.44 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlyJapan-0.10 -0.20 25.00 -2.52 Percentage Dec/2012 MonthlyNew Zealand0.90 0.80 44.00 -15.30 Percentage Dec/2012 QuarterlySoviet union7.10 6.60 2333.30 3.60 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlySouth Korea1.50 1.40 32.51 0.17 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlySpain2.68 2.87 28.43 -1.37 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlySwitzerland-0.30 -0.40 11.92 -1.37 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlyTurkey7.31 6.16 138.71 -4.01 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlyUnited Kingdom2.70 2.70 8.50 0.50 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlyUnited States1.60 1.70 23.70 -15.80 Percentage Jan/2013 MonthlyDecisionThe Inflation rate and economic stableness are closely related to one another and required near concern in order to stabilise the economic system. Brazil increasing tendency provide the threatening for its hereafter concerns and shows that the authorities demand to closely see this government in order to stabilise the economic system and to accomplish the economical growing in the universe.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Competitive Edge - Essay Example As the paper stresses business Ethics informs Olivia Jones to notify her employer over the need for competitive edge and uncover the situations she met while at the factory in Bombay. Her comfort all the way from the airport to the Hotel, in addition to her Limousine rides in the city against the inhumane conditions she face while at the factory demands an action, a debt to the society.Ã This study highlights thatÃ there are a number of consequences that might result if she opts for either option. A company aiming to be at the pinnacle of a business field can be faced with the dilemma as well as Olivia Jones, exercising a social conscience in the business field and their careers respectively. Olivia Jones is not the ultimate decision maker, her fate lie with her employers, i.e. towards social conscience or profits.Ã A profit driven companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drive must meet their targets and thrive in situations where they exploit their workers. Ã Ethical principles demand beneficence , and the decision maker is expected to do what is right and good. This should be priority; performance of a good deed and from the excerpt, a good deed is choosing the humane conditions over the competitive edge.Ã The justice principle states that decision makers must focus on those actions that are fair to certainly those people are involved. Ethical decisions must be consistent with ethical theory save for extenuating situations that can be justified which exist in this particular case.
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Report to business manager on blogging benefits - Assignment Example See the eBook/textbook example (p. 467-468), albeit, note that the book reference source citations/URLÃ¢â¬â¢s are missing! The executive summary is written last. It summarizes the purpose of the report, the methods used to create your report, and highlights the salient findings of your report, including your recommendation. Blogs are next to internet since its conception in terms of the pervasiveness of its use. 11.2% of online adults posts blogs once a month and of that number, a quarter of them (24.8%) reads a blog and half of it (13.7%) reads a blog. Business are beginning to capitalize on this as Burson-Marsteller survey showed that there were already 15% among the Fortune 500 companies who are now using blogs either to communicate or market (Wallace). The current use of corporate blogs are not that effective however. Experts agree that the current use of business of blogs are rather drab, dry and boring which go directly either to selling its products or promoting themselves. Of those companies who uses blogs, only two thirds gets any comments because of poor content. If harnessed properly, blogs can be a formidable communication and marketing tool. One of its outright benefits is that it costs almost nothing to set it up and requires minimal manpower to maintain. Businesswise, it does not cost much to have a blog presence. Blogs are global in reach. Companies using blogs can easily communicate to its customers, potential or existing, new products and information across continents at a very minimal cost. It can also help develop loyalty with its customers through the communication that is facilitated by the blog. One of the most common disadvantages of having a blog is the lack of utter creativity to maintain its visitorÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. This is becoming common as most companies employing blogs were found to be dry, boring and unattractive.
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Ismg 3000 - Essay Example Both of them may be right from their own perspective. It may be that the system can work with proper management or there may be need to change the system according to the needs of Calder. Both of them appear to be right in their own way which makes it difficult to decide. However if I were to choose I will Calder as the arguments presented by Calder are more convincing. Capability Maturity Model is a process improvement approach. This model is used to rate organizations according to their maturity levels. Maturity levels depend upon the standardization or process in the organization. These processes can be varied such as software engineering, risk management, personnel management etc. There are five levels of CMM Ã¢â¬â The structure of CMM consists of maturity levels, Key process areas, Goals, Common features and key practices. Every maturity level described above has some key process areas which need to be focused upon in order to reach the maturity level. Each key process area has goals common features and key practices associated with it. The core idea in Ã¢â¬Å"AgileÃ¢â¬ approach to project management is rapid and flexible response to any change in the project. In order to ensure this the agile approach encourages teamwork, collaboration and the ability to alter the process throughout the life cycle of the project. Agile projects do not involve long term planning. They break down the project into small iterations or time periods. Iteration usually lasts from 1 to 4 weeks. During each iteration all the teams involved in project such as planning, designing, coding, testing work simultaneously and in close collaboration with each other. This easily allows for changes in the project after each iteration .Agile gives importance to face to face communication, flat hierarchical structures, small team size and constant communication with the customer. IT projects with more than 50% chances of failure are usually called as Death March projects. These are projects
Friday, July 26, 2019
Che guevara - Movie Review Example He only relates to what his eyes seen as clearly depicted by his reactions to their host, the wife to Aberto friend at Necochea. The scene therefore becomes quite clear that this is a duo, embarking on an adventurous trip at the expense of their academics. The movie depicts the two (Ernesto and friend) as trickery and rebellious through the way they defraud people of shelter, transport and food. The unfolding of the film however depicts the two in fun and adventure unlike through whatever the narration actually portrays of the duo; stowaways, bandits and hooligans. The events of the film reveal gradual change of Guevara through the garment of civilization and the ties of cultural norms. The movie clearly depicts the Ã¢â¬ËneedyÃ¢â¬â¢ aspect throughout their adventures and which ultimately served to transform their character. Their encounters and diary depicts their perception of social injustices as well as inequality as people struggle in poverty while others enjoy affluence. It also depicts some change through the live of Guevara who stands to see through hope; future dreams in starting up a hospital to help the poverty stricken community. A revolutionary episode set in through the intention of the two to setting up revolutionary movements to empower poor people against exploitation by those in power. The movie then sets a close at the airport where in acknowledgement of the change that had happened within them over the trip, the duo parts ways (Carte
Art history Making study guides for a quiz - Essay Example Unique Forms of Continuity is an embodiment of his futuristic ideas. The figure is in a powerful stride indicating the constant progress and advancement. The contours of the muscular body flutter and flow in the surrounding space indicating the figure's great velocity and vitality as it pushes forward. The body has been deformed embodying its urge towards progress. This is a symbol of what is called as the Futurist World where developments are unprecedented. 28.63, Fountain Macel Duchamp is a French Dadaist who became the leading force in propagating Dada to the US. He believed that art should appeal to intellect rather than senses. This principle is embody through his ready mades which are ordinary manufactured objects transformed into artworks. Fountain is a porcelain urinal which is turned 90 degrees with signed with the pseudonym R Mutt ( from manufacturer J. L. Mott). This artwork has stirred debates due to its alleged immorality. However, it still embodies Duchamp's idea of readymade where the ordinary object is being used for another purpose which the artist imagines it to. This influences 20th century artists like Jeff Koons. 28.67, The Persistence of Memory This painting is an example of surrealism contributed by Salvador Dali. This painter is influenced by Miro and the latter also introduced Dali to Surrealists. Surrealism is a style in which fantastic visual imagery from the subconscious mind is used with no intention of making the artwork logically comprehensible. Paranoiac-critical method is his contribution to the surrealist theory where the sane person cultivates the ability of the paranoiac to misread ordinary appearances and become... Unique Forms of Continuity is an embodiment of his futuristic ideas. The figure is in a powerful stride indicating the constant progress and advancement. The contours of the muscular body flutter and flow in the surrounding space indicating the figure's great velocity and vitality as it pushes forward. The body has been deformed embodying its urge towards progress. However, it still embodies Duchamp's idea of readymade where the ordinary object is being used for another purpose which the artist imagines it to. This influences 20th century artists like Jeff Koons. Paranoiac-critical method is his contribution to the surrealist theory where the sane person cultivates the ability of the paranoiac to misread ordinary appearances and become liberated from the shackles of conventional thought. The head, which Dali identified as a self-portrait, first appeared in a 1929 painting entitled The great Masturbator. It may symbolize the artist's lifelong obsession with masturbation which has been the obsession which caused him considerable anxiety. This painting questions Kooning's real feelings toward women. He states though that he likes beautiful women but women also irritate him sometimes. This mixed emotion specifically his irritation toward women might have caused the result of his paintings.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
CRS-y - Assignment Example 58)Managers in every success-oriented organization are faced with three key decisions to make; First, the decision on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s value proposition. Second, the decision on companyÃ¢â¬â¢s value-driven operational model, and thirdly, the decision on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s value disciplines. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s value proposition entails the implicit promise to the customers outlining all values combination (Iacobucci 2011, p. 89). The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s value-driven operational model involves integration of operation processes with the systems of management and culture, required to deliver effective value proposition (Cooper 1999, p. 56). The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s value disciplines entail the integration of operational models and value proposition to achieve leadership in the market through competitive advantage. The Treacy and Wiersema value disciplines have impacted greatly on CRM as reviewed in the following discussion of the value disciplines. The first value discipline is opera tional excellence which involves provision of reliable products to the customers and pricing services competitively, with less or no difficulties and inconveniences to the customers. A good example of a company that has embraced this discipline is Dell (Egan 2008, p. 83). Operational excellence stresses on a specified strategic approach on production and delivery of products and services. The companies following this discipline strive for leadership in the industry through price and convenience. The companies seek ways on; overhead minimization, elimination of unnecessary production cost and business processes optimization across all organization frontiers (Mukerjee 2011, p. 167). The companies in pursuance of Operational Excellence concentrate on direct sale to customers, sale based on order rather than inventory and low-cost. Dell, General Electricals, Wal-Mart, America Airlines and Federal Express are some of the companies that have had a significant adoption of the operational e xcellence. This has helped them to be leaders in their industries by undercutting their competitors through the discipline. The companies witnessed an increase in their customer base and their sales (Kincaid 2003, p. 48). However, Operational excellence possess key challenges in maintaining a consistency customer loyalty. This is because the discipline does not focus on product innovation and a long-lasting customer relationship. Instead it concentrates largely on price and convenience in products and services. This results to high switching in buyers as they seek more innovative products, hence leading to a low customer loyalty (Kincaid 2003, p. 43). The other discipline indicated by Treacy and Wiersema is product leadership. This discipline entails product excellence through differentiation. The companies that choose to embrace the discipline shift their focus on making the product different from those of the competitors (Rafinejad 2007, p. 58). Customers may be required to pay a price premium on the products which are differentiated from the competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ products. Companies on this discipline strive for the Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢state-of-art productsÃ¢â¬ characterized by high creativity. Product leadership requires increased product innovation, commercialization of ideas, and pursuance of new solutions and risk taking management structure (Rafinejad 2007,
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
What is the history of Bill and Melinda Gates foundation What are their current Projects - Research Paper Example The formal launch of The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation was in 1999 summer. In early 2000, it was the largest philanthropic trust in the United States since its endowment stood at more than $22 billion. It mainly focus on global health and population control programs, education reform and minority scholarships, a wide range of Pacific Northwest institutions and programs, and libraries and access to information technology (Crowley, 2000). The foundation donated a total endowment of $17 billion in the form of Microsoft stock. However, the Foundation staff later transferred it into other assets to shield the organization both from the vagaries of the stock market and from the corporation. Under the direction of the senior Gates and Stonesifer, the foundation merged with the existing W.H. Gates and Gates Learning Foundations. There was also formation of major programmatic divisions for library and information systems, global health, and education directed respectively by Tom Vander Ark, Dr. Perkin and Dr. William Foege, and Richard Akeroyd (Crowley, 2000). The main goal of the foundation is to offer everyone an equal opportunity to prosper through elimination or reduction of barriers like poor nutrition, weak educational systems and poor health. Therefore, the largest part of its expenditure is on three broad issues: global development, global health and programs in the United States, which focuses on enhancing education (New York Times, 2010). For better management of its philanthropy base, the foundation adopted 15 guiding principles. Among these principles is the limited but crucial role played by philanthropy, the science and technology to enhance lives around the world by treating grantees as valued partners while still leaving room for growth and change. Founded on the beliefs of the GatesÃ¢â¬â¢ family, these principles have helped formulate policies used when giving grants to NGOs (Fundsforngos.org, 2008). Although it is unique
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
The Concept of Externalities - Essay Example Among externalities are ecological issues. When ecological issues come in, it is hard to control it. Example for these is the oceans, the rivers, and the air (Gale, 2001). It is hard for a market to cope up especially if there is an ecological exploitation. Most affected to this are those market whose products are taken directly to the one exploited, e.g. like sea foods. But usually the causes of the negative externalities are done also by the market itself. Example are those factory owners, if they dispose there wastes to the streams, they cause pollution. The market maybe aware about the impact they are doing but they think they can get away with it, or because the disposing of the garbage is too high, or they limit the budget for disposing waste to avoid costly method of disposing it (Mind your Business, 2003). In the long run, the negative impact will go back to them and that's when they realize the result of there actions. The market should regulate their waste disposal. They should invest a food was to dispose their wastes. In this case, they can be able to prevent ecological issues. To avoid the market failure, there are things that can be done not only by the market itself but the government can also intervene. Since the market know little about environmental impacts this requires research. This way though causes high costs for research. But there's another way, the government. The government has many accesses to more related action firms about this. The government can enforce an environment-protecting set of standards on the polluting industry. They can also limit the activities of this markets that can cause negative externalities. With this policy, markets will be controlled on their activities that may affect the environment. The government can enforce a tax on the polluter basing on estimated cost the damage done; in return the tax will then be used to eradicate pollution (Thompson, 2005). This way the only affected by the tax imposed are the producers and the consumers of the goods. Quoted from Mind Your Business news (Oct., 2003), "During the summer, they released their annual report - part of which was devoted to reporting on the performance of businesses in relation to incidents of pollution. The report suggests that overall incidents of serious pollution were 20% lower than in 2001 but cautions against any complacency and identifies well known businesses as being guilty of repeat offencesThe average fine per company rose by over one third to 8,744. Fines of more than 20,000 rose by nearly 42% compared to 2001 but the Environment Agency clearly feel that the size of the fines are insufficient to persuade companies to change their behavior. They cite numerous examples of businesses who flouted the regulations including a company director who dumped soil containing arsenic, mercury and cyanide. Arsenic is a deadly poison it its pure form and can cause circulatory problems, skin damage and increases the risk of cancer. Cyanide causes nerve damage and thyroid pr oblems and mercury causes skin disorders, internal bleeding, liver, kidney and intestinal damage. He was jailed for a year!" So for those markets out there beware about the rules and the consequences you might get into when it comes to environmental issues! According to Schultze (2006) that when a market failure occurs the resources fails. He emphasized that
Monday, July 22, 2019
Mandatory Drug Testing of Welfare Recipients Essay Thesis Statement Overall, mandatory drug testing initiatives have noble intentions such as: providing medical care to the abuser, preventing lifelong dependency, and saving taxpayer dollars, however, states should choose to not implement the intrusive testing because it is unconstitutional, costly, and ultimately detrimental to the child, not the parents. Through this presentation you will.. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Learn about how widespread welfare usage is, and the history behind welfare reform. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Understand why some legislators advocate for mandatory drug testing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Look at the facts and realize that it is not only unconstitutional but also not an efficient means of spending allocated funds. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. Reasons Why Supporters Believe in Mandatory Drug Testing Overall good of youth dependents Zero tolerance policy Some buy drugs with welfare Tax payers have a right to know That their funds are spent well employed people must take drug tests Overall well being of invidual All reasoning lead to their overall stance, pro-testing. Reasons Why They DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Believe in Mandatory Drug Testing th amemmendment) Unconstiutional (4 Cost Prohibitative Embarassing and untimely Potential false positives or false negatives This is why CPS etc. exists Kid gets punished; not the adult All reasoning lead to their overall stance, against testing. Florida Welfare Drug Testing Graphic- DO THE MATH. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. Conclusion Mandatory drug testing for welfare recipients is unconstitutional, because no just-cause to search and seize. We must trust that although it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t constitutional or affordable to drug test all people, other agencies are other there to protect the children, if abuse or neglect is occurring Correlation does not imply causation. Work Cited Amundson, Kalynn, Anna M. Zajicek, and Valerie H. Hunt. Pathologies Of The Poor: What Do The War On Drugs And Welfare Reform Have In Common?. Journal Of Sociology Social Welfare 41.1 (2014): 5-28. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 May 2014 Gupta, Vanita. Should Welfare Recipients Be Tested For Drugs?. U.S. News Digital Weekly 3.46 (2011): 14. Academic Search Complete. Web. 6 May 2014. Lyle, Lindsey. Floridas Legislation Mandating Suspicionless Drug Testing Of TANF Beneficiaries: The Constitutionality And Efficacy Of Implementing Drug Testing Requirements On The Welfare Population. Tennessee Journal Of Law Policy 8.(2012): 68-85. Academic Search Complete. Web. 6 May 2014. Work Cited Rhodes, Tim, Sarah Bernays, and Kathrin Houmoller. Parents Who Use Drugs: Accounting for Damage and Its Limitation. Social Science Medicine 71.8 (2010): 1489-497. Web. 6 May 2014. Vitter, David. Should Welfare Recipients Be Tested For Drugs?. U.S. News Digital Weekly 3.46 (2011): 14. Business Source Complete. Web. 6 May 2014. Vitter, David. Should Welfare Recipients Be Tested For Drugs?. U.S. News Digital Weekly 3.46 (2011): 14. Business Source Complete. Web. 6 May 2014. Wurman, Ilan. Drug Testing Welfare Recipients As A Constitutional Condition. Stanford Law Review 65.5 (2013): 1153-1193. Academic Search Complete. Web. 6 May 2014.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Lord Byron Byronic Hero Literature of the Victorian epoch was marked by a close intertwining of romance and realism. It also exhibits other features, such as a strong sense of morality, fusion of imagination and emotion, focus on social unrest, and the accessibility of literary works for common people. Within the Victorian period, a great number of outstanding writers and poets were established, such as Mathew Arnold, the Bronte sisters, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Robert Browning, Charles Dickens, George Eliot, Oscar Wilde, and others. These authors played an important role in shaping our modern literary taste. One literary figure that had a great influence on the Victorian epoch was the Byronic hero. Lord Byron created the Byronic hero and then later the Bronte sisters gave this type of character a rebirth in their literature. This influence will be explored in two of the Bronte sisters works: Wuthering Heights and Jayne Eyre. Created in the early nineteenth century, the Byronic hero which became possibly the most striking feature of Victorian literature. The main character Satan in Miltons Paradise Lost was Byrons main fascination. Satan is the true hero of the story, yet he is portrayed as a rebel. Other inspirations of Byrons Byronic hero were the protagonists of gothic novels as well as Napoleon Bonaparte, who was a highly controversial figure. These inspirations helped assist Byron to develop one of the most eminent literary types of all times. The term Byronic hero is defined by Atara Stein as follows: The Byronic hero is an outlaw and outsider who defines his own moral code, often defying oppressive institutional authority, and is able to do so because of his superhuman or supernatural powers, his self-sufficiency and independence, and his egotistical sense of his own superiority. He essentially defines and creates himself, like Wordsworths unfathered vapour, embodying the ultimate development of the individual. He is a loner who often displays a quick temper or a brooding angst, or both, and he lacks the ability to relate to others (8). Byron had created a unique character that is seen as a protagonist but also at the same time a very unstable character, known as the Byronic hero. The Byronic hero is usually distinguished by a certain set of qualities or character traits, which separate him from other dominant character types. These traits include isolation from society, rebellious nature, moodiness, arrogance and self-confidence, cynicism, self-destruction, sophistication and intellect, social and sexual dominance, self-criticism, introspection, and magnetic charisma. Through these traits the Byronic hero is established. The Byronic hero is an outcast, wanderer or recluse who, due to external circumstances or inner struggle, is separated from society. Emily Brontes character Heathcliff is a perfect example of an outcast in the beginning of Wuthering Heights. Heathcliff shows flawed characteristics which make the reader believe he is a misfit. He does not speak, he growls; and he does not smile, he grins. Heathcliff is an orphan, who has been cast out from his prior family. When Mr. Earnshaw takes Heathcliff in, his status is deemed less of an outcast, but then Mr. Earnshaw dies and his son Hindley treats Heathcliff like a servant. Hindley banishes Heathcliff to the servants quarters. He drove him from their company to the servants, deprived him of the instructions of the curate, and insisted that he should labour out of doors instead, compelling him to do so as hard as any other lad on the farm (E. Bronte 49). This passage supports the thought that Heathcliff is an outcast from normal life. This leav es Heathcliff to become a wanderer; he searches for time with Catherine, but due to external forces such as Hindley, he has a hard time not being an outcast. The Byronic hero is usually tormented by his past. However, Heathcliffs past transgressions can be redeemed by his love for Catherine, who can bring out the best in him. This combination of positive and negative traits produces an effect desired by readers as they then can recognize themselves in the Byronic hero, yet view him as an ideal. Heathcliff is outcast from Catherine due to external traits helping him posses characteristics to be a Byronic hero. Lord George Gordon Byron was endowed with the qualities of an unpredictable and controversial persona, thus leading people to wonder if the Byronic hero was modeled after him. Critics concur that Byron had a passionate manner and thirst for adventure. He was also a wanderer and pleasure seeker, traveling to Switzerland, Italy, Constantinople and Greece, looking for relief in new places. Lord Byron was involved in an affair with his half-sister Augusta and was known to be a notorious womanizer. However, some researchers write, during at least three periods of his life, homosexual interests predominated over his numerous heterosexual involvements(Crompton). All of Byrons relationships must have given him a sense of guilt that found its outlet in his famous works because Byron wrote a significant number of poems in this genre based on his feelings for younger boys at Harrow school(Crompton). Although Byron was always surrounded by people, he was seen as a lonely man who brooded over his past and indulged in self-criticism, and he behaved in a reckless manner which got him in all sorts of trouble. Some of his friends abandoned him, as public opinion was more important for them than friendship with an imprudent writer. Broken ties with people whom he had known for years resulted in the feeling of alienation, which Byron shared with his heroes. But Byron always had to take into consideration the publics taste and make the hero appealing to his admirers; this is why the Byronic hero changed over time. But Byron still pushed the limits with the publics acceptance of villainous, unsympathetic, and selfish characters. Although not identical, Byron and the Byronic hero display many similarities; the line between the creator and creation is very thin. Atara Stein maintains that the most appealing quality of the Byronic hero is the defiance of institutional authority (10). This quality can be respected by most individuals because rebels are always viewed as powerful people whether they are respected or not. In the case of a Byronic hero, he is always viewed as a powerful being although at the same time he is sometimes respected and sometimes frowned upon. However, for the Byronic hero his internal morals are more important than the external morals imposed by society. Having a tough exterior keeps the Byronic hero viewed differently by society while his internal code is not often seen by others, only by himself. Stein observes one significant distinction between the Byronic hero of the nineteenth century and his late twentieth century counterpart, stating that the contemporary Byronic hero is much more likely to take on a successful leadership role in the battle against oppression (10). Stein also quotes various researchers to back up her claim that Byron wished to please the audience, especially female readers, providing them with a fantasy image of desire (11). She emphasizes two possible levels of reading Byron. On the first level, we experience the inner turmoil of the main character, putting ourselves in his shoes and seeing the world through his eyes. On the second level, we distance from the characters, viewing them with implied irony. Heathcliff can be seen as an example of these two possible levels. With reference to Steins first level, Healthcliff can be viewed as an independent character that we can relate to at times because he does go through turmoil. The readers can put themselves in his shoes. Although Healthcliff can be seen as a humble man he does dictate ruthlessness. According to Steins second level the readers distance themselves from Heathcliff because his internal dilemmas turn into external problems which help readers realize he may deserve what he is getting. Although Heathcliff is a re bel, we view him differently than he views himself-more through his external attributes than through his actual internal traits, which only the rebel himself knows. Stein believes the quality of a rebel is an appealing quality of the Byronic hero. The Bronte sisters admired Byrons personality and his characters and felt compelled to respond to him in their works, which are considered to be literary masterpieces. For example Lord Byron in The Bride of Abydos and in Manfred explored not so much as morbid perversion, but rather as a narcissistic attraction between a male character and his female alter ego (Ceron). The Bronte sisters reading of Byron (The Bride of Abydos) privileges this dark side of the literary myth, and their main focus is on the mysterious identity and gothic aspects of the Byronic hero (Ceron). Although Romanticism was a dominant literary movement during the Victorian period, at the time the Bronte sisters were writing it was dying out. The Bronte sisters not only revived Romanticism, but also refreshed it with the Byronic hero. Charlotte was fascinated with the dark side of the Byronic hero. This fascination inspired her to develop the complex character of Edward Rochester in Jane Eyre (1847). As a manifestation of the Byronic hero, Rochesters life is under a veil of mystery, and his secret past and ambiguous present add suspense to the story Wuthering Heights. Rochester is depicted as a relentless man who cannot settle down at Thornfield and is constantly on the move. He is always in the sulks and finds difficulty in communicating with the outside world. Even though Edward Rochester does not have a particularly handsome appearance and lacks courteousness, he wins Janes heart: My masters colourless, olive face, square, massive brow, broad and jetty eyebrows, deep eyes, strong features, firm grim mouth, all energy, decision, will, were not beautiful, according to rule; but they were more than beautiful to me; they were full of an interest, an influence that quite mastered me, they took my feelings from my own power and fettered them in his (C. Bronte 331). Rochester was not withstanding his higher financial and social status in comparison with Janes, for all women were seen as inferior and subordinate to men in the Victorian epoch. However, on the intellectual level Edward and Jane were equals. This is especially vivid in the scene where Jane hears Rochesters voice at an enormous distance and runs to save him from misery. The reciprocal telepathy between them reiterates the gothic clichÃ © of superhuman capacities of two superior minds. However, Rochester deserves moral blame, for he conceals his marriage to Bertha Mason and is thus morally inferior to Jane. Charlotte Brontes character Rochester possesses many characteristics of the Byronic hero; not only is he a protagonist, but he is flawed. In fact, it is Rochesters troubled past that shapes his ambiguous and imperfect present. He recounts his misfortune of being tricked into marrying a mad woman whom he did not even love. Later, he learns of the web of lies weaved by the brides family and his own, but he is tied by a tight nuptial knot. The honeymoon was over, I learned my mistake; she was only mad, and shut up in a lunatic asylum. [Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦]. My father and my brother Rowland knew all this; but they thought only of the thirty thousand pounds, and joined in the plot against me (C. Bronte 583-584). As a result, Rochester develops a sense of distrust and avoids human contact, earning himself a reputation as a social outcast, which again is a trait of Byronic heroes. His whole life is cloaked in mystery that is revealed to the reader in the course of the narration. He could marry a well-to-do and beautiful lady like Blanche Ingram, but prefers poor and plain Jane because of her intelligence. He has confessed that he became a wanderer and abandoned his wife because he intended to find a good and intelligent woman (C. Bronte 592). Like a true Byronic hero, he hits the road and faces hardships. He is far from being perfect, and his imperfections make him an appealing character. Through the depiction of good and bad qualities, Charlotte Bronte reveals the dynamics of her hero, who can be different depending on the circumstances. At the beginning of the novel, Rochester is presented as a harsh, hard-to-deal-with and terse man. However, as the story unfolds, we observe a passionate and affectionate side of Rochester. He completely disregards his social rank and, contrary to social expectation, falls in love with Jane. In chapter 23 Rochester says, You-poor and obscure, and small and plain as you are-I entreat to accept me as a husband(C. Bronte 485), which shows lack of caring for rank which is another trait of a Byronic hero. On the one hand he loves Jane, and on the other he is bound by conjugal t ies to Bertha Mason. The constant internal contradictions are another common trait of the Byronic hero. However, Rochester has some qualities that are not inherent in the Byronic hero: He does not lack courage when it comes to saving the lives of others, and he is willing to sacrifice himself. In Rochester, Charlotte Bronte intended to portray a conventional man who has several flaws that make him down-to-earth and appealing to a female audience. Charlottes reading of the Byronic hero is much more framed within the conventions of the realistic novel (Ceron). This is why he can be viewed as more down-to-earth. In my opinion, Rochester is a border case between a traditional and Byronic hero, for he shares qualities of both. At the end of the novel, the good in him wins, which is celebrated in the happy ending. In Charlottes unique interpretation of the Byronic hero, she wanted to emphasize the possibility of taming him into a loving and faithful husband with the help of an attentive and every bit as caring a woman as Jane, thus portraying Rochester as severely flawed but at the same time very humanistic. Emily Brontes interpretation of the Byronic hero differs substantially from Charlottes. An anti-hero, like Heathcliff in Emily BrontÃ «s Wuthering Heights, surrenders his life to life-destroying values (Rick). He is sinister and violent, demonic, cold and aloof, handsome and passionate. All these traits have established him as a romantic hero, and therefore, an individualist (Rick), and he is the kind of hero always admired by women brooding, obsessed, and extremely mysterious. Isabella considers Heathcliff to be a hero, but he soon shatters her illusions, accusing her of picturing in me a hero of romance, and expecting unlimited indulgences from my chivalrous devotion. I can hardly regard her in the light of a rational creature, so obstinately has she persisted in forming a fabulous notion of my character and acting on the false impressions she cherished (E. Bronte 241). Isabella seems to be oblivious to the harsh reality. Heathcliff openly states that he will abuse her, but she s uccumbs to her own delusions. She hopes that her love will evoke deep and warm affection that is always attributed to the Byronic hero. Despite his fiendish nature and violence, Heathcliff is still viewed as a romantic hero, which accounts for his passionate love for Catherine. At the beginning of the novel, Heathcliff is called gipsy, wicked boy, and imp of Satan, which are hints about his unruly character and rebellious behavior. Mr. Earnshaw says about the boy, Its as dark almost as if it came from the devil (E. Bronte 57). The society of the Victorian period was racially prejudiced, and the boy felt their hostile and sometimes contemptuous treatment. The Byronic hero is a rebel. Heathcliff is against class distinctions, and this opposition had a major influence on his life and relationships with Catherine. In Victorian England, people were fascinated with gypsies, whose traveling lifestyle and sinister appearance put fear in peoples hearts. But despite Mr. Earnshaws remark, Heathcliffs descent is not traced and his physical beauty is undeniable. He had grown a tall, athletic, well-formed man; beside whom my master seemed quite slender and youth-like. His upright carriage suggested the idea of his having been in the army. His countenance was much older in expression and decision of feature than Mr. Lintons; it looked intelligent, and retained no marks of former degradation. A half-civilized ferocity lurked yet in the depressed brows and eyes full of black fire, but it was subdued; and his manner was even dignified: quite divested of roughness, though stern for grace (E. Bronte 151-152). Heathcliff struggles for dominance and control over the Wuthering Heights and Grange, but his financial and social status as well as ethnic background put obstacles in the way of possessing things he wishes. Heathcliff is shown as a beast at times, committing violent acts and uttering threats. However, his emotional complexity goes beyond reactions and motivations that underlie his deeds. He resorts to violence as a means to express the depth of his love and hate. Catherine is the only person with whom he can be good and caring, but he treats others as nastily as possible, evoking feelings of fear and hatred. Heathcliffs love for Catherine is more like obsession or addiction, and he is tormented by his feelings that are unfulfilled in actual relationships with her. He fits the description provided by Deborah Lutz: The definition of the Byronic hero is the tormented melancholy failure who nears success and then fails and experiences the eternal loss, the repetition of the impossibility of bliss (52). His insatiable passion consumes him, and he rejoices at the prospect of being reunited with her in death. Through his unswerving devotion to the beloved woman, Heathcliff can be redeemed. His pain is self-destructive and palpable, commanding sympathy on the part of the readers. As the story progresses to the end, Heathcliff gradually descends into madness. He muttered detached words also; the only one I could catch was the name of Catherine, coupled with some wild term of endearment or suffering; and spoken as one would speak to a person present; low and earnest, and wrung from the depth of his soul (E. Bronte 530-531). Heathcliff remains aloof till the very end of his life, which is the very nature of the Byronic hero. It is impossible not to notice striking similarities between Charlotte Brontes Rochester and Emily Brontes Heathcliff. Both protagonists share the qualities usually attributed to the Byronic hero, such as moodiness, higher emotional and intellectual capacities, and a lack of heroic virtues. However, it would be erroneous to claim that they fully fit the Byronic hero paradigm. Their characters, attitudes to others, and past experiences constitute a major distinction between the two protagonists and define the degree of deviation from a typical Byronic hero. Heathcliff shares more traits with the Byronic hero than Rochester. The latter is portrayed as a romantic hero with an insinuation of wickedness. It should be mentioned that during the Victorian period men exercised power over the fairer sex and the Bronte sisters expressed their doubts as to the masculine superiority and dominance, skillfully developing male characters with self-destructive qualities. However, one of the common th emes that appealed to the Victorian audience was overcoming limitations of the social situation. In Wuthering Heights and Jane Eyre, the protagonists leave their homes and return wealthy and respected gentlemen. The Bronte sisters proposed Heathcliff and Rochester to be very similar to each other, both possessing traits of the Byronic hero. Despite some similarities, the characters differ in many ways. First of all, Rochester and Heathcliff differ in physical appearance, as the former is viewed as unattractive, and the latter could hardly be called handsome by the Victorian standards of beauty. Still they are regarded to be sexually appealing and manipulative, well aware of their charismatic personalities and popularity with women. The men have different ethnic backgrounds, and for Heathcliff the color of his skin is one of the main problems why he cannot marry Catherine and acquire wealth. Secondly, the characters differ in the way they treat others. Rochester is cold and terse, but he never abuses people he lives with. Heathcliff, on the contrary, can resort to violence, harming others and displaying no mercy to the near and dear. Thirdly, love for good women has a polar effect on the protagonists. For Rochester, Janes love is like a remedy for his tormented soul; it is able to heal his past wounds and make him a virt uous man. For Heathcliff, Catherines affection is a poison that ruins his mind and body, causing his death. Although very similar in some characteristics, Heathcliff and Rochester differ in others. The Bronte sisters displayed somewhat different views of the Byronic hero. Emily Brontes primary emphasis is on the dark side of the literary myth, and her main focus is on the mysterious identity and Gothic aspects of the Byronic hero (Ceron). Emilys Wuthering Heights demonstrates the full adoption of the Byronic hero, egoistic by nature and thus untamable. Charlotte explores the seductive and redemptive sides of her character, believing in his transformation. Charlottes Jane Eyre presents an interpretation of the Byronic hero that becomes acceptable due to redemption. The Byronic hero, being diverse, gives the Bronte sisters options to focus on different aspects of his character. Byron provided modern literature with a type of character that evolved through time and pervaded our collective unconsciousness and captured our imaginations (Stein 9). The evolution of this character helped shape the Bronte sisters writing, creating an influential style, as seen in Wuthering Heights and Jane Eyre. The Byronic hero is a unique phenomenon in literature that is larger than life. He first appeared in Byrons works and changed in the course of time in order to conform to the public tastes. The image of the Byronic hero, although endowed with a number of dark qualities, has never lost its popularity. It is usually ascribed such traits as rebelliousness against rules, laws, and conventions prevailing in society, isolation, moodiness, passionate nature, arrogance, charisma and pangs of remorse. All these traits can be found in male characters developed by the Bronte sisters. Emily and Charlotte were influenced by Byrons life and death, and started their writing careers under his shadow. Byrons works, as well as his reputation, were evaluated and revised in Victorian times. The Bronte sisters showed a considerable influence of Byronism on their writings. They demonstrated that the characteristics of the Byronic hero could be in line with the gothic and sentimental. Emily demonstrates full-scale adoption of the Byronic character, while Charlotte is somewhere between admiring and loathing it. Heathcliff and Rochester are widely recognized as classic examples of the Byronic hero-a type of character that still stirs the imagination and feelings of readers.
Ifugao Culture: Ethnographic Research Name of culture What is the name of your chosen culture? What is the meaning of the name in English? Do the people in your culture call themselves this name if not, what do they call themselves and what does it mean in English? Do neighboring groups call them something else? If so, what is that, and what does it say about relations between the two groups? Add your own ideas The name of the chosen culture is Ifugao. The origin of the Ifugao comes from the term Ipugo, which means from the hill. According to their mythology, their name is derived from Ipugo which refers to the rice grain given to them by their God, Matungulan. Also, others say that the name comes from the word I-pugaw which loosely translates to inhabitants of the earth. Neighboring people refer to the Ifugao people as Kiangianl. Today, the people who inhabit this province refer to themselves as the Ifugao, although the area contains people who are not. Where is your culture located? The Ifugao culture inhabits an area of roughly 750 to 970 square miles in northern Luzon, which is located in the Philippines. The culture resides in the most rugged and mountainous parts of the Philippines, which is high in the Gran Cordillera Central in northern Luzon. The Gran Cordillera Central of Northern Luzon is consumed with a wide variety of natural areas. According to Fowler, The Gran Cordillera Central of Northern Luzon is a jumbled mass of lofty peaks and plummeting ravines, of small fecund valleys cleaved by rainfed, boulder-strewn rivers, and of silent, mist-shrouded, moss-veiled forests wherein orchids in their deathlike beauty unfold like torpid butterflies. The mountainous peaks rise from 1,000 to 5,000 meters and are drained by the waters of the Magat River. According to Siangho, Their neighbors to the north are the Bontco; to the east Gaddang; to the west Kankanay and Ibaloy; and to the south the Ikalaham and Iwak. It is believed the Ifugao were likely inhabitants of the nearby fertile plains, which is greatly opposite of their current dwelling. It is also believed that they were driven out of these plains by Malaysians because of their superior weapons. This is why they currently reside in the mountain side. The Republic of the Philippines is an archipelago of approximately 7,000 islands. The first people arrived about 100,000 years ago. These individuals were hunters and gatherers who survived off of the lands basic resources. Thousands of years later, people arrived from Asia and brough with them agricultural skills and social structure. From this cross-cultural intermingling, a culture was created and the Philippines was born. Language What language do people in your culture speak? Provide some details about the language specifically, the language family it belongs to, and an interesting fact or two about its structure. (Example: in Sinhalese, at the end of an interrogative, you have to add a special question mark word.) Add your own ideas The language name of the Ifugao people is Ifugao. The language family proceeds like this: Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon South-Central, Cordilleran Central, Cordilleran Nuclear, and then Cordilleran Ifugao. Therefore, the language family of the Ifugao language is Malayo-Polynesian. There are Four divergent dialects of the Ifugao language: Amganad, Batad, Mayoyao, Tuwali, each with distinct varieties: Amganad: Burnay Ifugao, Banaue Ifugao; Batad: Ayangan Ifugao, Batad Ifugao, Ducligan Ifugao; Tuwali: Apao Ifugao, Hungduan Ifugao, Lagawe Ifugao. As stated by The Ifugao native people, The Ifugao have a language that changes from village to village. Dialect and change of pronunciation can make it a real challenge to maintain a conversation between neighboring villagers. However, an official language dictionary has been produced. Settlements Population within Ifugao society in the twentieth century has varied anywhere from 60,000 to over 100,000. According to Malone, Population density in some areas approaches 400 per square mile. The only architectural structures noted for this group of people are the houses in which they reside and their extensive rice patties that extend from halfway up the mountain side all the way down to the bottom of the valley. The Ifugao people live in hamlets. These are like tiny communities that are located alongside the mountain near an owners rice patty. There are approximately 8 to 12 houses per hamlet. There are also building for the unmarried, which is discussed later in this assignment. Houses Describe the houses in your culture (straw huts, mud walled thatched roof dwellings, etc.). Be as detailed as possible, including size, layout, materials, colors, even prices if available. Who lives in a typical house? Women, men, children, elderly? Animals? Add your own ideas The houses of the Ifugao people are very small. The typical household consists of the nuclear family. A nuclear family is a family consisting of only a mother, father and their children. Once a child becomes a teenager and he or she is old enough to take care of his or herself, they go in live in either boy or girl homes. Typically the Ifugao house sits on four sturdy posts, with no windows. According to Fowler, Inside there is an open earth and stone fireplace for cooking and floor mats for sleeping and sitting. Family paraphernalia, such as baskets, bowls, clothing, skills (human and animal), and magic items, are hung from the walls or stacked on carved shelves. Although Ifugao houses vary little from this basic configuration, houses of nobility often feature differences, such as massive Hagabi lounging benches, decorated attic beams, kingposts and doorjambs carved with human effigies, and ornate exterior frezies portraying pigs, carabao and other animals. The adults and their smaller children (ones who can not take care of themselves) live together while children who can maintain their own lifestyle live in different houses. When the teenagers reach the age where they become interested in the opposite sex, the male teenagers leave their house during the day to meet females in other houses. From this intermingling, couples eventually form. Soon after a girl becomes pregnant, the couple will wed. After marriage, the couple will either build their own home, live in a home of someone who has died without kids, or live in a home left by one of their parents. After they settle in to their house, it is the moms duty to take care of the child and the dads duty to provide for the family. Student Response: Making a Living How do the people in your culture make a living? Describe what anthropologists call their adaptive strategy. (foragers, horticulturalists, pastoralists, agriculturalists, industrialists). Provide some details about their subsistence system (what game do they hunt, what crops do they grow, what animals do they herd, etc.). Add your own ideas People in the Ifugao culture live a very basic lifestyle to make a living. The usual lifestyle consists of agriculture and hunting, with anthropologists characterizing the adaptive strategy as agriculturists. According to Malone, Ifugao subsidence is derived principally from agriculture (84 percent) with an additional ten percent derived from the raising of aquatic fauna, such as minnows and snails, in flooded rice fields. The remaining six percent of subsistence involve fishing (fish, eels, frogs, snails and water clams); hunting (deer, wild buffalo, wild pigs, civet cats, wild cat, python, iguana, cobra, and fruitbat); and gathering of insects (locusts, crickets, and ants) as well as large variety of wild plants. As we can see, the main duties are tending to the rice patties. The men are usually the ones that participate in the hunting and fishing. When the men hunt after wild deer and pig, they usually use hunting dogs to assist them. The dogs are not raised to eventually eat (lik e some nearby cultures); the Ifugao people respect and admire dogs. Political System Describe your cultures political system. Use the anthropological terms we have learned in class (band, tribe, chiefdom, state). Provide some details about the cultures power/authority system how do individuals get into a position of power? What are traditional methods of social control and conflict management? Add your own ideas The Ifugao political system is better characterized as a sociopolitical organization. According to the article, Ifugao Sociopolitical Organization, Traditionally, social differentiation has been based on wealth, measured in terms of rice land, water buffalo and slaves. The wealthy aristocrats are known as kadangyan. The possession of hagabi, a large hardwood bench, occurs their status symbolically. The Ifugao have little by way of a formal political system; there are no chiefs or councils. There are, however, approximately 150 districts (himputonaan ), each comprised of several hamlets; in the center of each district is a defining ritual rice field (putonaan ), the owner (tomona ) of which makes all agricultural decisions for the district. Government is poorly established among the Ifugaos. According to Malone, The functions of government are (or were) accomplished by the operation of collective kinship obligations, including the threat of blood feud, together with common understanding of the adat or custom law given the people by ancestor heroes, in particular the inviolability of personal and property rights. Men earn respect according to their rice pattys. The bigger their patty is, the high status they have in the community. Also, within the Ifugao community, there is a rice chief. The rice chief is one of the leading priests and the people respect him for religious authority, but he does not have ultimate authority over the Ifugao people. For the most part, people are on their own when it comes to government control. Kinship System Use anthropological terms to describe your cultures kinship system (matrilineal, patrilineal, etc.). Provide a brief definition of that type of kinship, and then say why your culture fits that definition. Describe the kinship terminology, and provide examples. Add your own ideas According to Malone, Each sibling group is the center of an exogamous, bilateral kindred.: Essentially, this is descent traced and kinship groups assigned through both male and female lines with marriages being outbred instead of inbred relationships between families. Basically, people dont marry within their family, but outside of it. The adults and small children all live together. When the child comes of age, which is basically a teenager, they move out of their parents house and live on their own in a second house with other kids their age of the same sex. When the men begin to search for wives, they leave their houses during the day and the women stay in their homes to greet and welcome men. They start in a very cool and calm atmosphere, such as jokes and casual talk, but eventually relationships form. After a girl becomes pregnant, they will wed. At this point the couple will either build their house or inhabit a house left by their parents or someone who has passed away without children. When they are settled in, the mothers duty is to care for the child while the father hunts for food for the family. Marriage Describe your cultures marriage system. How do people choose a mate? Is there a particular category of person an individual is supposed to marry (example: in El Nahra, where Elizabeth Fernea lived, people were supposed to marry their cousins). Are marriages arranged, or do individuals get to pick their own spouses? Could you imagine yourself getting married the way people do in that culture? Add your own ideas Marriage within the Ifugao culture is quite simple. The normal form of marriage in the Ifugao society is monogamy. Monogamy is being married to only one person at a time. Although monogamy is widely practiced, polygyny is practiced occasionally by the wealthy. Even thought the defimition of polygyny is that either male or female may have multiple spouses, it is mailnly the males that have multiple wives. In these situations, the first wife has higher authority and status than her co-wives. According to Malone, Marriages are alliances between kindreds. First cousin marriages are forbidden in practice and theory, but marriages to more distant cousins can take place. These marriages can take place with a payment of fines in livestock. The men are able to choose their wives within this culture. There are no established or set marriages for the Ifugao people. When the men are interested in marriage, they begin meeting other women in their society. When they begin their relationship, it is a very casual environment. Eventually it become serious, and after the woman is pregnant, the man and wife get married. They will then move into their own place together to begin their family. This seems pretty similar to the American marriage system on the fact that we look for and choose our own mate. Some people get married before they are pregnant while others get pregnant before they are married (although some people may never marry). I think this is definitely a culture I could be a part of, in the sake of their marriage system that is. Sex and Gender How would you describe gender relations in your culture? Do men and women live completely separate lives, as in Guests of the Sheik, or do they mix it up? How much power do women have over their own lives and the lives of others? Do women have official political power? Is there a gender division of labor (there has to be every culture has one!)? Given your own gender, would you like to live in that culture? Add your own ideas Student Response: Ifugao society is much separated. Men and women live apart unless they are married and/or brother and sister, but even at a certain age of childhood; they go and live on their own, away from their parents. Men are the ones who hold political power, or lack thereof, in the Ifugao culture. Usually, the only powerful people in this society are men who are respected because of their wealth. The division of labor is set between the genders as well. Since this a very simplistic culture, the women tend to the children and house work while the men tend to the fields of rice and hunting food for the family. I would call it a classic, nomadic style of life. Another note that women are not as powerful or highly touted as men is the fact that, in the case that polygyny does exist, it is with multiple wives and usually not multiple husbands. This form of marriage is very rare and only among the elite and rich people in the culture. For me, I wouldnt like to live within this culture. I think it is good for men and women to mix and mingle within the workplace, home, and political power. Men and women bring different ideas and ways of life to the table, and I think a successful culture allows men and women to intermingle freely. Therefore, I would not want to live in the Ifugao society. Religion Describe the religion (or religions) found in your culture. Do people believe in a god or gods? Do people in your culture practice magic? If so, what kind? How has missionary activity affected people in your culture (if it has) Add your own ideas Religion is an essential part of the Ifugao culture and is significant in every phase of life. Their religion provides a means by with the unknown can be approached and understood. Ifugao religion is a very complex structure based on ancestor worship, animism, and magical power. According to Fowler The Ifugao pantheon consists of innumerable spiritual entities that represent natural elements, forces and phenomena in addition to ancestral and methphysical beings. The trust and confidence that the Ifugao have in these beings allow them to face what is often a complex and frightening world with a great deal of confidence and understanding. They believe that the gods and other beings are approachable and can be influenced by the proper rites and behavior to intercede on behalf of an individual or the entire community. Generally the gods are viewed as generous and benign beings who enjoy feasting, drinking wine and chewing betel nut, as do the Ifugao themselves. However, the gods are quic k to anger and if ignored or treated badly can quickly become ill-tempered, demanding tyrants capable of causing misfortune and injury. The Ifugao people have created ceremonies to honor and respect their deities, although some are rarely acknowledged or called upon. Others, who control daily life, such as agriculture and health, are constantly worshipped and called upon. The greatest importance to the Ifugao are rice or agricultural deities which have the power to ensure bountiful crops and actually increase the amount of rice already in storage. Interesting fact Provide one additional interesting fact about your culture. Do they have a fascinating set of ideas about illness, disease and curing? Describe it. Do they have an elaborate art style? Describe it. Do they engage in sexual practices that strike you as very different from that of Western Society? Talk about it. Do they have a particular type of body modification (scarification for example) or style of body adornment? What is it? You dont have to answer all of these questions pick one or one of your own choosing and provide as much information as you can find. Although the Ifugao have no knowledge in writing, they were capable of creating a literature that matches with some of the countrys finest in epic and folk tale. Their literature is passed orally. Their riddles serve to entertain the group as well as educate the young. One such example of an Ifugao riddle is, according to Siangio: Dapa-om ke nan balena ya mubuttikan nan kumbale. This translates to: Touch the house and the owner runs about. The answer is spider. When the Ifugao gather together, they use proverbs to give advice to the young. These proverbs are used to stress a points. The ones who have gone to formal school begin their lectures before large meetings or gatherings with proverbs. Here are a few Ifugao proverbs according to Sianghio: Hay mahlu ya adi maagangan :: The industrious will never go hungry. Hay uya-uy di puntupong hi kinadangyan di ohan tago. :: The feast is the yardstick of a persons wealth. Hay itanum mo, ya hidiyeh aniyom :: What you have planted is what you will reap. Ifugao myths usually are about hero ancestors, gods and other supernatural beings. They story lines usually have these heroes facing problems that they are currently facing. This allows the Ifugao people to provide hope and comfort to their homes. When these stories are recited, they are usually in barked-out, terse phrases followed by the tulud, which means pushing. The tulud aims to bring the magical powers that stand behind the myth. At the end, the clincher kalidi is chanted and the narrarator enumerates the benefits which should be obtained from the myth. The myths are usually concluded with the phrase, because thou art being mythed. They have myths that cover common cultural stories such as: creation of the world, creation of man, great battles and epic struggles. They also have stories that cover other worldly known events, such as the great flood or Noahs Arc to the Bible. According to Sianghio, Other Ifugao legends that have been recorded include, The Legend of the Ambuwaya Lake; The Origin of the Pitpit or The Bird of Omen; Why the Dead Come Back no More; and How Lagawe Got Its Name. Other such important tales are the magical stories, called abuwab. These tales are believed to possess mystical powers. According to Siangho, Examples are the poho-phod and chiloh tales, which are usually told in death and sickness rituals. The abuwab is usually about the legendary husband and wife, Bugan and Wigan. Also, Siangho says, The Ifugao epics are chanted romances telling of the origins of the people, the life and adventure of the Ifugao heroes, the valor of men and the beauty of women, as well as ancient customs and traditions. Sources: Fowler, John. The Ifugao: A Mountain People of the Philippines. Tribal Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2009. . Froiland, Andrew. Ifugao. Ifugao. Minnesota State University, n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2009. . Ifugao Sociopolitical Organization. Countries and Their Culture. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2009. . Malorie, Martin. Society Ifugao. The Center for Social Anthropology and Computing. University of Kent at Canterburry, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2009. . Sianghio, Christina. Ifugao. litera1no4.tripod.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2009. . The Ifugao native people. eSSORTMENT. N.p., 2002. Web. 4 Dec. 2009. .
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Portfolio Project Ã¢â¬â Dell, Inc. Dell, Inc.Ã¢â¬â¢s origins date back over 25 years ago when it was founded under the company name PCÃ¢â¬â¢s Limited (Edwards, 2007). This once small company got its start when founder Michael Dell began building personal computers for students at the University of Texas. Today, Dell has developed its product line to offer more than computers; they also sell entertainment and office equipment. DellÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership, guided by the corporate code of conduct, has shown a clear commitment to environmental matters and frequently publicizes the ways in which the company has developed new techniques to reduce the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s energy use and product waste (Ã¢â¬Å"Latest update,Ã¢â¬ 2010). The main reason for DellÃ¢â¬â¢s success is their ability to manage the financial health of their company. This success is reflected in the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s financial statements. There are three main financial statements that should be evaluated to understand the financial status of a firm Ã¢â¬â the balance sheet, the income statement, and the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s statement of cash flows (Keown, Martin, & Petty, 2011). The balance sheet provides a snapshot of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s financial position on a particular date and includes information about the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s assets, liabilities, and shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ equity. This particular financial statement is an overview of what the firm owns and what the firm owes (Ã¢â¬Å"BeginnersÃ¢â¬â¢ guide to financial statements,Ã¢â¬ 2007). An analysis of DellÃ¢â¬â¢s current balance sheet shows that they have approximately $40 million in assets - of which $29 million are current assets. This means that the firm expects to turn this amount of current assets into cash within the next 12 months (Keown, Martin, & Petty, 2011). Further analysis of DellÃ¢â¬â¢s balance sheet reveals that the fir... ...1087&p=irol-reportsAnnual Keown, A. J., Martin, J. D., & Petty, J. W. (2011). Foundations of finance: The logic and practice of financial management (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Latest update on Dell corporate responsibility progress. (2010, October). Retrieved from http://content.dell.com/us/en/corp/d/corp-comm/cr-newsletter.aspx Loan rates. (n.d.). Omniglot. Retrieved from http://www.omniglot.com/info- articles/chicago/loans-rates.html Ogg, J. C. (2011, January 27). 2011Ã¢â¬ ²s new dividend candidates from giant companies. 24/7 Wall Street. Retrieved from http://247wallst.com/2011/01/27/2011s-new-dividend- -from-giant-companies-amgn-brk-a-dell-ebay-emc-kss-csco-aapl/2/ Peavler, R. (n.d.). Use profitability ratios in financial ratio analysis. About.com. Retrieved from http://bizfinance.about.com/od/financialratios/a/Profitability_Ratios.htm
Friday, July 19, 2019
Religions of India India is the second largest populated country in the world, and for being only the seventh largest country India populates over 1.2 billion people. Holding 1/7th of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population, India has quickly become the largest populous country in the world. India therefore is home to many different religions with the most popular including: Buddhism, Jainism and Islam. The development of these three religions has shaped India into a wonderful multi-cultural nation. Buddhism is now considered a world religion, with excess of over 708 million followers. Buddha, which can also be translated to the enlightened one, was known as a man named Gautama Sidhatha, and was Son of Suddhodana. He lived in a small village on the border of India and Nepal around the time period of 563 BCE. The facts and knowledge of BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s life is represented in a book known as Book of Great Decease. This book was written about 200 years after BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s death and has been passed down over ma ny generations. The Book of Great Decease was written with both fact and fiction mixed together. When his mother became pregnant she experienced a dream where an elephant and a lotus flower were lying by her side. She had this dream interpreted and the results came back explaining that she was to have a baby boy and that he would become a universal emperor or a universal teacher. As a child Buddha grew up learning all of the skills appropriate for a prince and later became a Kshatriya. Gautama (Buddha) showed off his excellent skills and qualities including his intelligence and strength. He later married but his father, however, was concerned that he would not become a universal teacher if he underwent any kind of misery. Gautama led a normal life but o... ...gious freedom to all Hindus and Buddhists under his control.Ã¢â¬ This source signifies that the Muslim invasion was not one of making people convert, it was a decision that people could make if they chose. Nothing was forced upon the people of India. As a result the spread for Islam throughout India happened very quickly and easily. Many of the people form India saw Islam as a way of becoming a part of a bigger organization and many Muslims were able to achieve higher social status than those of Buddhists or Jains. Subsequently, India became a dominant Muslim country with the help of political leaders such as Mahmud of Ghanzi and Muhammad Tughaluq who helped drive the Islamic expansion in India without altering, changing, or conflicting with the Indian culture. Due to the expansion of Islam through India other religions quickly declined, including the fall of Buddhism