Friday, December 27, 2019
The Japanese American Citizens League, also known by the acronym JACL, is a Nisei organization founded in 1929 with the initial goal of lobbying for Japanese-American Civil Rights while promoting the integration of citizens into American culture. Since its inception the JACL has expanded its mandate to focus on lobbying for the Civil Rights of all Asian-American citizens and protecting Japanese-American cultural heritage. The JACL is considered one of the oldest and one of the most influential national organizations promoting social justice and equality throughout the country. The actions of the JACL have frequently been shaped by and frame in response to varying historical events as well as both public prejudice and political attitudes. As a result, the organization has, at times, been both critiqued by the Asian-American community for its support of racist government policies and praised for its opposition of legislative discrimination. In particular the organization has been criticized for its complacency during World War Two (1939-1945) with the federal government s discriminatory internment of Japanese-American citizens. The origins of the JACL reside in the large number of Asian immigrants into the United States at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century who typically took up residence in the regions along the American west coast. Despite being earnest labourers, entrepreneurs, and American citizens those of Asian ancestry whereShow MoreRelatedThe Executive Order 9066 and Its Effects on Japanese American Victims1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbecame a reality for the Japanese when President Franklin Roosevelt passed the Executive Order 9066 on February 19, 1942, which allowed the government authorized the internment of tens of thousands of American citizens of Japanese ancestry and resident aliens from Japan. Over 120,000 innocent citizens of California, Arizona, and Oregon faced unjust and unconstitutional treatments by their o wn government, who was supposed to protect citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights but made the Japanese feel the complete oppositeRead MoreWorld War II Was The Deadliest Conflict Of Japanese Americans On The West Coast Of The United States1625 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfuel of hostility against the Japanese-Americans that has been increasing for many years. Americans sought a solution to fix the Japanese issue after its brutal attack against the United States, but failed to distinguish between domestic and global issues. The United States decided to intern all Japanese citizens on the west coast. Families were given notice, told to move to evacuation centers, and then to predetermined military zones. Although the Imperial Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor resultedRead MoreThe Internment Of Japanese Americans1484 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfirst bombs were dropped on Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941, the American peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s fear of the Japanese grew dramatically, especially for those Japanese living in America. Almost every Japanese American was seen as a threat to the country. On February 19th, 1942, Executive Order 9066 was issued by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, authorizing the relocation of Japanese Americans to camps further inland. Over 175,000 Japanese Americans were affected in some way by the order, even though more than 70Read MorePedagogical Principles And North Carolina s Essential Standards Essay1336 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesstandardsÃ¢â¬â¢ objectives In American History II Ã¢â¬Å"American History Course II will guide students from the late nineteenth century time period through the early 21st centuryÃ¢â¬ ¦. An emphasis is placed on the expanding role of the federal government and federal courts as well as the continuing tension between the individual and the state. Ã¢â¬ This 5 day unit plan focuses on the people and events leading up to the Internment of over 120,000 people (mostly U.S. citizens) of Japanese ancestry in the United StatesRead MoreAsian Americans And The American Dream1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe status of the American Dream is mostly beneficial for citizens in the country that have certain connections and higher education. Overall, the American Dream is dying and it is much harder for a person now to achieve it if he or she does not have any direct connections or a higher education and a more well-off economic standpoint. The standards in the society has made is much more difficult for minorities to face their obstacles to pursue their dreams. Over 44% of the American population todayRead MoreThe Battle Of Imperial Japanese Navy Attack On The United States Of The World War II859 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCombined Fleet of Imperial Japanese Navy launched a preemptive military strike on the United States of America. Their target, the U.S Pacific Fleet and its headquarters at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii .Their objective to launch a lighting preventative assault on the United States, cripplingly the U.SÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to take part in World War Two and contribute to the Allied War effort. The Attack caught the Pacific Fleet completely by surprise, U.S forces only becoming aware of the Japanese presence as they came underRead MoreInternment Camps And The Japanese Americans1964 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesStates. In 1941, when Japan had attacked Pearl Harbor, the United States government had assumed the viewpoint that the Japanese were not to be trusted, and that the Japanese-American citizens of the United States were much the s ame. As such, they had resorted to establishing internment camps, or preventive labor prisons, so as to keep them in check and ostensibly to prevent further Japanese sabotage. However, the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s actions were not fully justified, as several factors had interplayed into theRead MoreThe Internment Of Japanese Americans1356 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Internment of Japanese Americans By Angel Willis-Pahel The topic I choose to right about is the internment of Japanese Americans during WWII. The question that I intend to answer today is: The Constitution guarantees American citizens no imprisonment without due process of law, yet has been violated by the federal government in at least two American wars. How did the government justify interning Japanese-American citizens in World War II? In order to understand why this happened we have to firstRead MoreThe Birth Of The League Of Nations1621 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesG1 The Birth of the League of Nations The Great War, now commonly referred to as World War One, ended on November 11th, 1918. In its wake lied a tremendously devastated Europe, which was where the majority of the carnage took place. Following World War One, Europeans were struggling to restore some sense of normalcy for themselves and their families. To do that, maintaining peace was imperative. EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s economy was in shambles, their land was left greatly damaged and citizens were emotionally scarredRead MoreChanges In Japan Essay994 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesunderwent a historical event that eliminated their old constitution and originated a new one. During the Mejia restoration Japanese feudalism was overthrown, and Japan was introduced to Western political principles (Terrill, 2016). The Mejia restoration led to a transformation of an economic system, and from that Japan adapted their first constitution in 1889 (Kopp, 2017). The 1889 Japanese constitution had no check or balances, so there was no possible way to manage different parties having more control
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Comedic Violence in The Medea, The Oresteia, and Antigone Almost no Greek tragedy escapes the use of violence. The Medea, The Oresteia, Antigone, and other classic works of Grecian tragoidia all involve huge components of violence in many prominent places, and for all of these stories, violent action is an integral part of the play. Medea, especially, is a character worthy of note in this regard; her tumultuous life can be plotted accurately along a path of aggression and passionate fits, and her bloody history lends tension and ascendance to the cathartic events of the gripping Medea. In contrast to this turbulent streak of brutality in Grecian tragedy stands the world of Greek comedy. Violence in comedy is just as much a partÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In comparison to this is Lysistrata, a comedy in which violence is not shown to be an answer that works. In this story, however, the overarching dilemma is the existence of the Peloponnesian War. For Euripides, violence is a question and a centerpiece of intrigue, yet it is not the root of the plot. Aristophanes, on the other hand, chooses to investigate gender relations and the concerns of daily life by using a hollow context of violence that ostensibly motivates the actions of the characters while avoiding center stage as an issue of any weight in the play itself. At first glance this analysis seems wrong: it appears that Lysistrata is very much concerned with violence. After all, Aristophanes intended to write an anti-war piece. However, while this statement is technically true, it is only a skin-deep realization. In actuality, Lysistrata herself is not anti-war in the sense of being ideologically opposed to war; she is anti-war only insofar as she detests the Peloponnesian War. And yet, although the Mede is at our gates, / You ruin Greece with mad intestine wars. / This is my first reproach to both of you, (Aristophanes 1132) says Lysistrata to the assembled Spartan and Athenian ambassadors. In this passage, the fiery woman establishes her stance and proclaims that she is mainly upset over the fact that the current war is more a civil war than a war against actual enemies. Her core
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about the case study Project Management Methodology for Improvement Plan Helps. Answer: Reflection The outcome of this course in week 10 is associated with the project management methodologies which explains the practices of continuous improvement plan helps to achieve the objectives effectively. The outcome of this course facilitated me to gain the depth understanding of the role of change management in order to define requirements of the work and also enables me to make continuous improvement in the project. Cheshire cat quotes that if you dont know where you are going, any road will get you there. This quotes gain my knowledge that firstly we have to need to develop understanding about the reason behind the improvement in the project after that needs to understand the position of the project and then need to understand the continuous performance that has carried out within the project. These things have considered by me in the professional life as it enables me to accomplish the goal successfully. Besides this, the course of week 10 also offers me an effective learning as I taken the practical experience to develop the project management maturity model on the real life practices. It also supported me to learn about how to develop the optimized process in the project. Apart from this, I have also gained experience about the different level of project management maturity model in order to accomplish the project on time. In this way, I have gained knowledge that first level is related to awareness of the process, the second level identifies the repeatable process, the third level defined the process, the fourth level manage the process, and the fifth level optimized the process. These different levels are beneficial to me to develop great understanding in terms of recognizing the responsibilities of a senior manager from an initial level to the last level of the project management maturity model. Further, I was enabled to optimize a different process that is essential due to changes in business need. This course also develops my understanding about the different thinks that is to be considered in the continuous improvement plan. These things are the current state of the project, strategies to bridge the gap, monitoring and capturing the process of the project. I have considered these things in the project in order to get the continuous improvement in the project. This course outcome also facilitated me a great knowledge about the lean six sigma roadmap. This roadmap defines the five steps that are effective to improve the quality of the project. These steps involved define the quality, measure the quality, analyze it, improve it, and then control the quality. It is effective to me in order to quality improvement in the project. Further, I have gained experiences about the ways that help to determine the current state and future state of the project and also helped me to develop the structure associated with the planned improvement actions. At the same time, from this course, I have developed the knowledge about the effectiveness of project management methodology in order to continuous improvement in the project. Due to this, I enabled to execute the effective methodology to get success. It will also facilitate for me to enhance growth related to my professional career in terms of building the project with respect to the benefit of the company. Weekly Portfolio Learning Table Date Issues Identified Related policies/ procedures Planned Action Planned completion date 6.10.2016 Article about project management methodology indicated that continuous improvement assessment tool does not incorporate the ease and comprehensible steps. It creates difficulty to me in order to execute the continuous improvement plan in the project. Project management methodologies such as continuous improvement plan, lean six sigma roadmap, and different ways to determine the current state and future state of the project. There should be a continuous improvement to bridge the gap. 7 October 2016 (Completed) Supporting Documentation including your Prior Learning Kerzner, Chapter 20.0-20.8, and 21.0-21.4 https://books.google.co.in/books?id=QgQQC5qRtzgCprintsec=frontcoverdq=kerzner+project+managementhl=ensa=Xved=0ahUKEwjiysP9j8bPAhVEMo8KHZpQDW8Q6AEIKjAB#v=onepageq=kerzner%20project%20managementf=false PMI Managing Change Chapter 6 https://marketplace.pmi.org/Pages/ProductDetail.aspx?GMProduct=00101469401
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Nuclear Energy And The Environment Nuclear Energy and the Environment In our society, nuclear energy has become one of the most criticized forms of energy by the environmentalists. Thus, a look at nuclear energy and the environment and its impact on economic growth. Lewis Munford, an analyst, once wrote, Too much energy is as fatal as too little, hence the regulation of energy input and output not its unlimited expansion, is in fact one of the main laws of life. This is true when dealing with nuclear power. Because our societies structure and processes both depend upon energy, man is searching for the most efficient and cheapest form of energy that can be used on a long term basis. And because we equate power with growth, the more energy that a country uses, - the greater their expected economic growth. The problem is that energy is considered to have two facets or parts: it is a major source of man-made repercussions as well as being the basis of life support systems. Therefore, we are between two sections in which one is the section of resource availability and waste, and the other the continuity of life support systems pertinent to survival. Thus, the environmentalists believe that nuclear energy should not be used for various reasons. First of all, the waste product, i.e. plutonium, is extremely radioactive, which may cause the people who are working or living in or around the area of storage or use, to acquire leukemia and other cancers. They also show how billions of dollars are spent yearly on safety devices for a single reactor, and this still doesn't ensure the impossibility of a melt down. Two examples were then given of Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, in 1979, when thousands of people were killed and incapacitated. Finally, the environmentalists claim that if society wastes less energy, and develops the means to use the energy more efficiency, then there would be a definite decrease in the requirement for more energy producing plants. On the other hand, some business men and economists say that the present conditions should be kept intact, as the other forms of energy, e.g. oil, natural gas and coal, are only temporary, in dealing with surplus, and give off more pollution with less economic growth. Concurrently, countries wanted a more reliable, smokeless form of energy not controlled by OPEC, and very little uranium was required to produce such a high amount of resultant energy. Lastly, they said that renewable energy is (a) unreliable in that the wind, for example, could not be depended upon to blow, nor the sun to shine, and (b) were intermittent in that a 1,000 mega-watt solar farm may occupy about 5,000 acres of land, compared with less than 150 acres of land for a similar capacity nuclear power generation station. Because the energy technology that society employs directly influences the quantity and quality of life, the energy option that is chosen should have the greatest cost- benefit effectiveness as well as maximizing flexibility and purchases. However, those who believe in continuous energy consumption growth, seem to forget that there is only a limited supply of energy in every energy system, and to overdo any resource may provide for an unacceptable impact upon global and regional ecology. Thus, if the business world pushes the environment as far as it can go, Ceribus Paribus, please refer to figure 1. Thus, to use petroleum as a substitute for uranium, which is needed to power the nuclear system, would not be economically or environmentally sensible. I say this because, first of all, there is a major supply of uranium considering it was one of the last energy sources to be found as well as only a small amount of it is required to produce a lot of energy. Secondly, petroleum gives off carbon monoxide which is one of the reasons for ozone depletion; whereas, the uranium does not give off pollution except that it produces plutonium which needs to be buried for more than fifty years to get rid of its radiation. Finally, because so much of the petroleum will be required to power the vast area that nuclear energy can cover, the cost to us as the consumer would be massive! This would mean slower economic growth and/or expansion, especially when compared to nuclear energy. Therefore: Ceribus Paribus - (a) if the cost decreases, the demand increases, and - (b) if the cost increases, the demand decreases. Please refer to figures #2 and #3 respectively. Nuclear plants are now replacing coal burning plants. It will cost
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Summary of President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address This inaugural speech establishes what John F. Kennedy's vision is for the United States--actually it is more of a world vision--of global unity, supporting freedom and human rights for all humankind. He suggests that we should all celebrate in this time of freedom. Man holds all of the power in his hands. Yet, there are still revolutionary beliefs being fought around the world. He does not want us to forget that we are all apart of this revolution. He states, ?The torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans that are unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed?(Kennedy 1). He wants us to feel proud and support our nation. We should protect it at any cost to keep the people free. Therefore, we pledge our alliance to this nation. He believes the world would be much stronger and could conquer any problem as a whole rather than being divided. We can use our country's strengths to help the other nations to be free. He assures the new states that would be joining in the ?ranks of the free?(Kennedy 1), it would not be absolute control. He encourages these states to support their beliefs and their freedom. President John F. Kennedy suggests, ?We need to help the people help themselves. For if a free society cannot save the few who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich?(Kennedy 2). We all need to work together as a global unit. Also, let our neighbors know that no other countries are going to take us over. He wants us to believe that ?this hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house?(Kennedy 2). He proposes a request, ?Both sides begin anew the quest for peace before the destruction of all humanity in planned or accidental self destruction?(Kennedy 2). He wants us to remember to be civil and sincere. As he advises, ?Let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate?(Kennedy 2). We all need to be willing to work together and explore the problems that unite us. As he states, ?This is the beginning"(Kennedy1). All of this coming together will take a lifetime and maybe more. Hence, the job will never be finished. There will always be room for improvement, so now is the time to begin. Since President John F. Kennedy is empowering us as a nation, it is up to us whether this will succeed or fail. It all lies in our hands. Man has too many common enemies, for that reason we need to form a global alliance. Our President wants us to believe in him as leader and in ourselves. He encourages us to want to achieve this goal. Consequently he says, ?Ask not what your country can do for you -- ask what you can do for your country?(Kennedy 3). If we all agree to work together and be true. We can truly live in harmony. Worked Cited Kennedy, John F. ?President John F. Kennedy, in His Inaugural, Takes Up the Torch for a New Generation.? Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History. Ed. William. Safire, New York: Norton and Company, 1992. Summary Of President John F. Kennedys Inaugural Address Essays Summary of President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address This inaugural speech establishes what John F. Kennedy's vision is for the United States--actually it is more of a world vision--of global unity, supporting freedom and human rights for all humankind. He suggests that we should all celebrate in this time of freedom. Man holds all of the power in his hands. Yet, there are still revolutionary beliefs being fought around the world. He does not want us to forget that we are all apart of this revolution. He states, ?The torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans that are unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed?(Kennedy 1). He wants us to feel proud and support our nation. We should protect it at any cost to keep the people free. Therefore, we pledge our alliance to this nation. He believes the world would be much stronger and could conquer any problem as a whole rather than being divided. We can use our country's strengths to help the other nations to be free. He assures the new states that would be joining in the ?ranks of the free?(Kennedy 1), it would not be absolute control. He encourages these states to support their beliefs and their freedom. President John F. Kennedy suggests, ?We need to help the people help themselves. For if a free society cannot save the few who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich?(Kennedy 2). We all need to work together as a global unit. Also, let our neighbors know that no other countries are going to take us over. He wants us to believe that ?this hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house?(Kennedy 2). He proposes a request, ?Both sides begin anew the quest for peace before the destruction of all humanity in planned or accidental self destruction?(Kennedy 2). He wants us to remember to be civil and sincere. As he advises, ?Let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate?(Kennedy 2). We all need to be willing to work together and explore the problems that unite us. As he states, ?This is the beginning"(Kennedy1). All of this coming together will take a lifetime and maybe more. Hence, the job will never be finished. There will always be room for improvement, so now is the time to begin. Since President John F. Kennedy is empowering us as a nation, it is up to us whether this will succeed or fail. It all lies in our hands. Man has too many common enemies, for that reason we need to form a global alliance. Our President wants us to believe in him as leader and in ourselves. He encourages us to want to achieve this goal. Consequently he says, ?Ask not what your country can do for you -- ask what you can do for your country?(Kennedy 3). If we all agree to work together and be true. We can truly live in harmony. Worked Cited Kennedy, John F. ?President John F. Kennedy, in His Inaugural, Takes Up the Torch for a New Generation.? Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History. Ed. William. Safire, New York: Norton and Company, 1992.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
cuba and embargo essays The island nation of Cuba, located just ninety miles off the coast of Florida, is home to 11 million people and has one of the few remaining communist regimes in the world. Cubas leader, Fidel Castro, came to power in 1959 and immediately instituted a communist program of sweeping economic and social changes. Castro allied his government with the Soviet Union and seized and nationalized billions of dollars of American property. U.S. relations with Cuba have been strained ever since. A trade embargo against Cuba that was imposed in 1960 is still in place today. Despite severe economic suffering and increasing isolation from the world community, Castro remains committed to communism. (Close Up Foundation) The United States and Cuba share a long history of mutual mistrust and suspicion. All aspects of U.S. policy with Cuba, such as the current trade embargo, immigration practices, and most recently the possibility of a free exchange by members of the media, provoke heated debates across the United States. While most Americans agree that the ultimate goals should be to encourage Castros resignation and promote a smooth transition to democracy, experts disagree about how the U.S. government should accomplish these aims. Some believe that the countrys current policy toward Cuba is outdated in its Cold War approach and needs to be reconstructed. However, many still consider Fidel Castro a threat in the hemisphere and a menace to his own people and favor tightening the screws on his regime even more. (Close Up Foundation) For almost forty years, the United States has not imported any Cuban products, nor allowed any American food, medical supplies, or capital to enter Cuba. President Clinton, like each of his predecessors, supports the trade embargo. Two recent pieces of legislation have tightened the economic restrictions on Cuba. (Close Up Foundation) The Cuban Democracy Act, passed by Congress in 1992...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Roger Ebert Review Nichols, Why are Ethical issues central to Documentary Filmmaking - Essay Example ilmmaker with the ability to film familiar problems in the society that would probably not catch anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in a renewed distinctive perspective thereby wins the audience attention. His filming techniques are able to arouse the audience feelings making them think of how to get solutions to the problems other than just living with the problems. Roger and Me documentary faced several ethical challenges. Michael Moores did not inform the social actors of the repercussions of taking part in the film. It was his responsibility to explain to his subjects the objectives of the documentary, how it would affect their public image and any compensations for any bad effect. The audience tend to believe what they see or hear, therefore, the people of Flint, Michigan, who were interviewed in the documentary, especially Miss Michigan did not deserve being portrayed as foolish to the public. The main objective of a documentary to tell the truth, it is a challenge to the filmmaker whether to tell the subjects of harmful effects of taking part or choosing not to film so as not to lie to the audience (Nichols). The filmmakers sometimes withhold informed consent as it would ruin their film if they revealed their intentions or the actual effects of a film. Michael Moore withheld the informed consent from the people of Flint, Michigan which is an act of deception which did not protect the social actorsÃ¢â¬â¢ dignity and rights despite delivering a truthful piece to the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Institutional Theory in Governmental Organizations - Literature review Example This pressure has forced many of them to adopt new strategies such as Institutional Theory and Performance Measurement Systems, in order to overcome this pressure. Factors making Institutional Theory applicable in the Public Sector There has been an increasing pressure, for governmental and other nonprofit organizations to adopt strategies such as Institutional Theory. It is claimed that these new strategies, will make them act more like profit-making organizations than just nonprofit organizations. According to Oliver (1997, p. 697-698), governmental organizations are more vulnerable to all the three types of institutional forces than other profit-making organizations. As he explains, researchers have shown that the susceptibility of public sector organizations to institutional pressures is extremely high due to the many stakeholders and customers that it serves. All this pressure has doomed it highly necessary for the governmental organizations to adopt strategies such as Instituti onal Theory and Performance Measurement. According to Peter and Joseph (2004, p. 283-285), the pressure that the public sector is experiencing, mainly comes from the non-profit organizations that rely on the government for funding. It is argued that non-profit organizations have grown in numbers and have evolved from small-locally owned to large, national owned organizations. Therefore, these organizations are pressuring the governmental sector more. This is because they require more funds to accomplish their elevated goals and sustain their large workforce. The state is another stakeholder that is pressuring the public sector in many countries. According to Brunson and Olsen (1993, p. 44-46), many governmental and nonprofit organizations are owned by the state or the government in many countries. Therefore, it is argued that many governments place a lot of pressure on their organizations, in order to gather popularity from the citizens. As Grafstein (1992, p. 223-225), the governme ntal organizations are also currently facing another pressure from the many customers that they serve. As he points out, many profit-making organizations have been applying the concepts of intuitional theory in their firms, so as to maintain and attract more customers. According to Katz and Khan (1978, p. 147), the services and goods being provided by the private and many other profit-making organizations are far much better compared to the ones provided by the same organizations owned by the government. As Grafstein explains, this has resulted in the governmental organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ customers demanding the same quality goods and services as the ones provided in the profit-making organizations. Therefore, it is claimed that many governmental and nonprofit organizations are adopting the Institutional Theory in their institutions to enable them to overcome this pressure.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
The Impact of an Exercise Tax on Demand, Supply, Price, and Quantity - Essay Example There are several factors that affect the price elasticity of demands. One of these factors is the level of prices. Expensive goods such as cars have a high elasticity of demand as a result of the sensitivity to price changes. On the other hand, the price elasticity of demand for inexpensive good such as matchboxes rarely changes the demand by a significant amount. Another factor that affects the price elasticity of demand is the income level. The elasticity of demand for any product is less in groups with higher income levels as compared to the low-income levels. This is as a result of the fact that the impact of prices changes is bigger to the poor people than the rich (Varian 320). The availability of a close substitute is another factor that affects the elasticity of demand. Demand for a product with many substitutes, for example, Pepsi is more elastic as compared to that with a few or no close substitutes such as salt. Lastly, the nature of a commodity is another factor that affects the price elasticity of demand. Necessity goods such as vegetables have inelastic demand while comfort goods such as refrigerators have elastic demand. Luxurious commodities such as cars have more elastic demand than comfort goods (Varian 323). For a consumer to maximize utility he must be at the consumer equilibrium condition. Economists express this condition by equating all of the marginal utilities per dollar that the consumer spends in buying a certain commodity. As seen from the above calculation, there is no single equation where the marginal utility per dollar is at equilibrium hence there is no combination where the consumer has the option of maximizing the utility.Ã
Friday, November 15, 2019
Self Harm And Suicide In Prison Although specific explanations have been put forward by those attempting to explain self harm and suicide, they can each generally fit into one of two main larger theories. The first, that the individual characteristics of inmates themselves are explanatory variables and that their susceptibility to self-harm and suicide is essentially imported into prison. The second, that it is the environmental factors characteristic of prison which actually act as a causative link between prisoners and acts of self-harm or suicide. The ideas behind these explanations are informed by an even larger theoretical debate around how people adjust to prison generally; the two contrasting arguments are known as the importation and deprivation models. The first point to examine is the validity of argument that individual characteristics are indeed what primarily predisposes prisoners to self-harm and suicide. Such arguments stem from the importation model, which supports the notion that prisoners already possess certain characteristics making them more likely to self-harm before they are even in prison. According to Irwin and Cressey (1962, p.145) a clear understanding of inmate conduct cannot be obtained simply by viewing prison culture or inmate culture as an isolated system springing solely from the conditions of imprisonment. The factors researchers have tended to focus on include; gender, age, psychiatric, history, offence-type, legal status and sentence length. Zamble and Porporino have outlined adverse life events, negative interpersonal relationships, social and economic disadvantage, alcohol and drug addiction, contact with criminal justice agencies, poor educational and employment history, low self-esteem, poor problem-s olving ability, and low motivational drive (cited in Liebling,1995,p. 181) as the characteristics of prisoners which can be relied upon in identifying risk factors. In a recent study conducted by Humber et al (2011), prisoner characteristics of suicide victims were in England and Wales were examined. They suggested that amongst the prison population there are particular groups more likely to be suicidal. This included; female prisoners, those who have been identified as being at risk of self-harm/suicide, those with a psychiatric illness and those with a history of violence. As has been discussed above, a vast amount of international research on prison suicide and self-harm has sought to understand this behaviour through focussing in on the individual characteristics of inmates. Due to the fact causes of suicide have been so strongly aligned with personal attributes of prisoners, public policy has often been structured with an emphasis on the prediction, prevention, and treatment of suicidal prisoners (Hayes ,1999). However, in focussing solely on the prisoners alone ignores a significant component of prison and that is the harsh environment and constraints which it enforces upon inmates. If the notion of imported vulnerability is relied upon in explaining suicide, it is assumed that one already exhibits certain traits before they were put in prison, such an assumption raises several questions of doubt. Prison suicide rates are commonly compared with those of the general population and this has highlighted that prisons have a higher number of suicides re lative to their population than that of mass society. It must be asked then if people already have certain characteristics before they get to prison then what is that leads them to suicide in prison and not in the outside world. The importation model also fails to explain those who have previously never suffered mental illness or any characteristic associated to being susceptible to suicide, but yet once imprisoned begin self-harming or even commit suicide. Rather than thinking of suicide as an individual issue, perhaps it should be approached from an institutional perspective which looks to its own walls for answers and not just at those who inhibit it. Liebling (1995, 1999) has repeatedly emphasised that concentrating studies exclusively on the individual is conceptually limited and she has stressed the need to approach prison suicide from an institutional perspective. Such discourse aligns with the deprivation model of thinking, originating from the work of (Clemmer,1940), (Goffman,1961) and (Sykes,1958). The deprivation model purports that it is the pains of imprisonment or deprivations suffered in prison, that primarily influences ones response to imprisonment. Sykes (1958) described; deprivations of security, autonomy, sexual desire, liberty, and goods and services as being central to the construction of such an environment. He suggested that prisoners could display self-centred and egotistical alienative modes of behaviour that arose from being forced to conform to roles commensurate with prison regimes and having to fit in with prison social life( Sykes,1958 p.295). More recently, De Viggianni (2007) and Ireland (2000), have also looked into incarceration and consequential suicidal behaviour. They drew correlations between such behaviour and the socio-environmental factors specific to prisons such as, a lack of support the presence of gang culture, and the prison code and its enforcement. It would therefore appear that the deprivation model is proposing that the more severe the consequences of the institutional regime are, the greater the likelihood of suicide occurring in prison. Huey and Mcnulty (2005) drew the conclusion that it is overcrowding so commonly experienced by prisons which plays a pivotal role in deprivation and consequently on prison suicide. A prison which is overcrowded and under staffed is undeniably more likely to have a decrease in standards. Services such as medical care, and unfavourable dynamics like staff-offender ratio, limited activities, a lack of food and clothing, unwanted interactions, and fluctuating social structures within the prison can all stem from overcrowding and all contribute to an increased risk of self-harm and suicide (Anasseril,2006). Lieblings (1992) study, involving interviews with prisoners who had attempted suicide whilst inside indicated that a prisoners vulnerability to suicide is also extremely relative to the suppor t and contact received from family and friends on the outside. She found that a scarcity of visits, written communications, and contact with community release/probation programs can detach a prisoner from the outside world and thus induce self- harming acts. She has also associated the use of time and opportunities available to prisoners with the likelihood of suicide. Believing that the ways in which inmates serve their sentences, can dramatically affect their mental state, she highlights inactivity as a crucial aspect of this. In New Zealand, the prison population is approximately 8698 people, with the imprisonment rate having increased by 53% in the last decade. (Department of Corrections, 2012a). Within his work calling for prison reform, Director of Rethinking Crime and Punishment, Kim Workman has alluded to the importance of values in prison. He suggests New Zealand needs to create a humane, just and workable prison system that attempts to reduce the pain of imprisonment(2009, p.18) and if a move can be accomplished from managing risk to creating a system supporting inmates to achieve their best, then that will be a major achievement. Although of course all prisons vary and some more than others would display the institutional paradigms as discussed above. Evidence suggests that prisons generally are lacking, at least on some level in providing the services needed and to the extent needed to ensure the health and well being of prisons is addressed and thus suicidal behaviour is reduced. What deprivation based theories could be critiqued in ignoring though, is that the prison environment can in some instances have a positive influence on inmates and work in improving peoples lives, leading them away from self- harm and suicide. In New Zealand numerous programmes exist to enhance the rehabilitation of prisoners, including; motivational programmes; rehabilitation programmes; education and employment programmes; and reintegration programmes. A recent example of the success these programs occurred this month when a group of prisoners at Auckland Region Womens Corrections Facility were the first to graduate from the Sma ll Motors Engineering course(Department of Corrections,2012b). Additionally, just as the importation model can be critiqued for its failure to see the prison itself as a problem, the deprivation model could arguably be seen to not fully engage the personal traits of the individual inmate. It would appear that the deprivation and importation models are rarely considered in unison, however it is beginning to become acknowledged that an integrated model of prison suicide could be the most sufficient method of furthering research and consequently preventing self-harm and suicide (Dear, 2006; Liebling,2006; Towl, Snow and McHugh, 2001). Through considering both models simultaneously a more and realistic and practical grasp on the occurrence of suicide can be ascertained, as more often than not both the environment somebody is confronted with and their own personal traits act combine together in influencing their resulting behaviour and well-being. Preventing Suicide Throughout research attempts, no one trigger has been able to conclusively identify the reasoning behind why people commit suicide in prison. It can thus be assumed that no single solution will successfully achieve the goal of suicide prevention and a multi-disciplinary approach is required if an effective outcome is ever going to be reached. In conjunction with this there must be a commitment from the prison and department to actually adopt and apply prevention strategies, because no matter how complete a strategy may be, it is worthless without implementation. In looking to the research which has been done on suicide prevention, it has been found that when comprehensive prevention programs have been implemented considerable decreases in suicides and suicide attempts have been accomplished (Cox and Morschauser, 1997, Gallagher and Dobrin, 2005; White and Schimmel, 1995). It must be noted however that the specifics of these programs should be relevant to local resources and inmate needs, for example a prevention program designed in America for a maximum security prison would not have a positive preventive effect if enforced on a smaller medium security prison in New Zealand. Konrad et al, 2007 have comprised an outline of several key components they believe necessary to any prison suicide prevention strategy. The first aspect outlined is training, specifically of correctional officers whom are the ones with the inmates on a constant basis, mental health professionals will never be available at all times to all prisoners and thus officers mus t be trained to develop an intuitive sense about the mental state of the inmates under their care. Training must also be kept constant, they suggest at least once a year. Screening is the second preventative tool they refer to. Suggesting that screening should take place immediately as they inmate arrives and if possible screening should be carried out within the context of an intake medical and psychological assessment, conducted by relevant professionals. Where it is the responsibility of correctional staff they should have specific training. Communication is also a vital factor and records of such screening should be kept so as all staff can become aware of at risk prisoners and not just the one person who did the screening. If a prisoner identifies as high risk this should not be ignored and immediate professional help should be provided. They stress that screening should not just be a one off measure, but must take place regularly to be effective as suicide prevention involves on-going observation. If an inmate has been recognised as suicidal, Konrad et al emphasise that they should not be left alone and adequate monitoring is essential as suicide can happen within minutes. They further the importance of human contact by including social interaction as a key preventative aspect. Referring to the success of a social support system which has been provided through the use of specially trained inmate buddies or listeners. In terms of the more physical elements of the prison itself the authors outline that a suicide-safe environment is necessary. In building on these key components, it is also necessary to consider the prison atmosphere in general in relation to the pressures and harsh mentality it exerts. Prison has been described as an intrinsically non-therapeutic environment (Department of Corrections, 2008), yet we are frequently sending people there who exhibit severe mental illnesses and numerous other vulnerabilities. Of course some people are a danger to society and it cannot be expected that these people are simply excused from prison due to certain characteristics, however, the environment inmates are living in, could be changed. Instead of focussing on locking people up with no stimulis or contact with others, the focus should be on giving prisoners the chance to change and we cannot expect this from taking everything away from someone. Just by being in prison one has given up any liberties and power but by taking away even the smallest of luxuries like the ability to exercise or go outside or even have a pen and paper is not only depriving but also preventing growth within that person. Self-harm and suicide will inevitability continue to occur if people are completely deprived of any sort of life except simply existing within four walls. The system must gain the ability and willingness to identify the vulnerability of each prisoner, provide the necessary supervision and support, and create an atmosphere in prison where the opportunity exists to cope with and reduce emotional distress which commonly develops into self-harm or suicidal behaviour Conclusion This paper has considered the concerning issue of self-harm and suicide in prisons. Numerous existing explanations for this behaviour have been explored within the two main theoretical spheres of the importation and deprivation models. The latter part of this essay has focussed on possible preventative strategies aimed at counteracting the causative factors forming the varying explanations for self harm and suicide. In drawing all the components of this paper together, prison is a place which comprises of a number of more vulnerable population groups coupled with an environment which is more commonly designed to be harsh, punitive and for adult men who are sound in body and mind. This combination of factors ignores who is really in our prisons and fails to aid the aims of prisoner safety and rehabilitation. As a result of these imbalances, self-harm and suicide occurs and in order to combat this, an environment which offers more than the luxury of just existing must be sought.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Organisational change is something that occurs throughout an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s life cycle and effects the entire organisation rather than one part of it. Employing a new person is one example. Change is increasing due to a number of forces including globalisation led by rapidly advancing technologies, cultural diversity, environmental resources and the economy; therefore the ability to recognise the need for change as well as implement change strategies effectively, in a proactive response to internal and external pressures is essential to organisational performance. Internal changes can include organisational structure, process and HR requirements and external changes involve government legislation, competitor movements and customer demand (Wood et al, 2010). Change does not need to be a painful process, as it may seem when observing the amount of failed change management initiatives with reports as low as 10% of researched success rates (Oakland & Tanner, 2007), when successful change management strategies are utilised and planned, including effective communication strategies, operational alignment, readiness to change and implementation, which all lower and overcome resistance (Wood et al, 2010). There is a great amount of literature on the negative aspects and difficult management with employees resisting change, however Wood et al (2010) challenge this notion by questioning the change management process as people do not resist change itself but aspects of the change that affects them personally such as fear of the unknown, status, remuneration and comfort. Resistance to these changes is a healthy reaction and can be managed effectively in the beginning by ensuring communication and using one of the change initiatives described here. Background Information Truelocal is based in Sydney, with small sales branches in Brisbane and Melbourne. It employs over 150 staff, an increase of approximately 50% over the past two years. It was founded in 2005 by NDM as part of an expanding operation of online websites to provide across the board consumer services, including news and magazine websites; online sport and weather information; and shopping comparison search engine, web-based recruitment, and travel search engine solutions [http://www. ewsdigitalmedia. com. au, accessed 25/08/2010]. As the world shifted into what is often referred to as the Ã¢â¬Ëdigital info ageÃ¢â¬â¢, consumer demand for online media as a way to source information significantly increased and demand for printed media decreased putting pressure on newspaper companies to expand to producing news and information online in digital format. This included News Corporation which decreased its newspaper operations and increased its digital expansion. As an employee at Truelocal for over six years, I have acquired this information presented here through interviews with management, company information and my own observations internally within the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s sales department working in the roles of sales executive, account manager and senior retention account manager. The Need for Change Ã¢â¬â Management & Structure Truelocal needed to align its culture, values and structure with the parent company in order to meet strategic growth goals not long after it was founded. Wood et al (2010) describe the work of an author, Noel Tichey on managing strategic change. Experts use three fundamental sets of change in their approach; technical design, political allocation and culture/ideological mix problems. It is one of these problems that become a pressing issue at any one time of which then initiates the change. In TruelocalÃ¢â¬â¢s case there were a number of changes evolving and at this time it was culture problems. NDM has been growing in size since its establishment in 2006 with a number of acquired website operations, each operating as a separate business unit with the support of HR, Finance, IT, Commercial Operations and other support services provided by the parent company (NDM). A decision was made to align the organisation in terms of operations, culture and strategy so it could concentrate on innovation and performance to achieve its goal of becoming the number one provider of online information in Australia. As a result NDM redesigned its organisational structure as Truelocal and most of the other business units merged together in one location. Not long after this relocation, Truelocal began flattening out the company structure lead by a new management team and CEO. It has since been under constant change to achieve itÃ¢â¬â¢s goal to continue growth (both in number of staff and performance) and excel as a high performing and innovative company with an agenda of being the second largest online directory service in Australia after itÃ¢â¬â¢s competitor Sensis (Yellow pages online). Wood et al (2010) explain the performance gap is a desire to move from one less desired state to another. This can be seen by the increased performance after the change occurred and culture change was implemented. What changed Fundamental changes that occurred were a shift from the existing vertical, bureaucratic structure to a horizontal structure and change in specialist functioning of divisions creating a professional, corporate environmental culture that was customer focused. The existing culture was a casual attitude towards dress requirements, starting and finishing times, breaks, informal communication expression and channels and many staff were employed as friends of existing staff rather than based on competency and job skills. Some managers had their partners working for them and a few were family members. There didnÃ¢â¬â¢t appear to be any dress code and people came and left work at varying times. Additionally management employed more skilled staff, retrained existing staff and created processes of which procedures were then put in place. One of the ways these objectives were achieved was by the reduction of management layers resulting in more direct reporting. Wood et al (2010) explain as organisational size increases, the more interconnections and less direct communication between people takes place (Wood et al, 2010). Change Process When management at Truelocal uplifted existing management and reporting structures, staffs were initially left without direction, reporting channels, processes and goals were not clearly communicated causing a lot of uncertainty. Consequently many staff resigned as they felt upset and confused about what was happening. Truelocal however, retained some of the more experienced staff with new career development propositions and new managers were encouraging and open about future improvements that were to take place within the organisation. One of the ways Truelocal could have managed this change is by using the Freeze/Unfreeze concept; Wood et al (2010) explains Kurt Lewin, a famous organisational PsychologistÃ¢â¬â¢s three-force phase, which is needed for any organisation to be motivated to bring about the change of which are; 1) Unfreezing focuses on preparing people for change. This is a critical part of the change phase prior to implementation by analysing and influencing resistance and need to change. A common tool that is used at this stage is called Force Field Analysis, this measures these forces. ) Changing of people; tasks; structure; technology. Ideally the organisation will be completely unfrozen, ready for change and its goals made clear. It is recommended that staff are not perceived to have a sense of high or low security at this stage in order to avoid resistance. 3) Refreezing is the evaluation and reinforcement of the changes that took place. The new managers were recruited by Truelocal for their exp erience in organisational transformation within the type of professional, high performing, corporate environment the organisation desired and who worked at their competitor company. These managers were expected to manage the entire change process themselves. Change agents are people or groups who take responsibility for the change of behaviours and existing patterns in a supportive manner (Wood et al, 2010). The perceived risks however, are the responsibility of the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s leader who decides on the direction of the change (Oakland & Tanner, 2007). Planned changes that took place were; Structure Ã¢â¬â change in organisational design by reporting systems, operational processes and size of teams, while roles were redefined by definition, job title and remuneration. Tasks Ã¢â¬â Most jobs were redesigned including more responsibility for staff in management roles and multi functional tasks for other staff. One of these job designs is called job enrichment, which is the increase and deepening of motivating factors built into a job (Wood et al, 2010). Some of these enrichments used by new management were increased responsibility and accountability, less control and more freedom in the job and more recognition. People Ã¢â¬â improvement of recruitment and selection process by advertising formal job vacancies on the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s intranet and incentives for staff to nominate candidates who were then formally interviewed by a number of managers. Additionally training sessions for new staff, coaching and certification courses were made available. Carless (2005) describes her research on the compatibility of job-person-organisation-environment fit. She believes a person must assess their attributes and personality with the job and organisational characteristics, which is likely to improve job satisfaction and adjustment to the environment. Culture Ã¢â¬â organisational values and beliefs were communicated from the parent company of which staff was rewarded when their behaviour displayed these values. Recognition was given in addition at meetings and performance appraisals. This is the observable culture, however as Wood et al (2010) explain, shared meanings and stories are other powerful aspects of culture and this can be observed at Truelocal by the high turnover of staff by both stories and norms that communicate the need to work hard to perform in the job or leave. Cultural symbols include trophies for Ã¢â¬Ëemployee of the monthÃ¢â¬â¢ awarded to the highest performer. These symbols serve to transmit cultural meaning (Wood et al, 2010). In the sales department a large subculture can be observed. Wood et al (2010) explain strong subcultures are often found in high performance task forces where people share similar values and backgrounds. This subculture included men between the ages of 22-30 yrs that have no formal education, drink alcohol excessively, and are passionate about technology, highly materialistic and view women as sex objects, which can often be observed by their language and behaviour. Moreover this culture is likely to be influenced by the national culture of which the organisation is embedded (Wood et al, 2010). In fact this subculture existed in the old culture before the restructure of which the company held Ã¢â¬Ëdiversity trainingÃ¢â¬â¢ focused on discrimination and fairness within the workplace resulting in terminations. According to The Economist (2008), in the economic downturn companies need Ã¢â¬ËGeneration YÃ¢â¬â¢ as hungry 25-35 year olds without commitment, for marketing and product innovation with emerging technologies, able to put in the time and energy to help them deal with recession hazards, especially in sales. Strategy Ã¢â¬â operations and planning were clarified at monthly and quarterly meetings including product changes. These were addressed by department managers regularly and CEO meetings irregularly, to engage staff. Wood et al (2010) explain leadership has changed from the traditional trait and behaviour approaches to transformational, charismatic, visionary focus and is separate from management. The leadership team at Truelocal formally includes the CEO and parent company (NDM) leaders. Their leadership function can be observed by their language and behaviours they use a transformational and visionary change approach. Objectives Ã¢â¬â specific performance targets were set allowing staff to earn a higher commission by overachieving set targets, recognition and prizes to increase motivation consistently. Purpose Ã¢â¬â both the CEO and the parent company made organisational goals clearly communicated vision and clarified progress regularly. Recognition was given for the contribution of each department and each business unit to the overall success of the organisation. These changes were managed by senior staff using a combination of change strategy approaches as explained by Wood et al (2010) that include a forced approach of top down command, one way communication, coercive reward and punishment approach, rationalisation approach and shared decision making, empowered approach. Of these approaches no single approach was concluded best by researchers on organisational change and it is advised that more commonly a combination will occur, however guidelines are offered to change agents and managers (Wood et al, 2010); Ã¢â¬â consider use of expert consultants Ã¢â¬â communicate the need for change feedback from employees Ã¢â¬â avoid changing for the sake of change Ã¢â¬â study organisational change and structures From this perspective Truelocal management took the right approach by varying the way they managed the change. Change Results The facilitation of clearer and faster communication channels enabled staff to work more efficiently and g et things done faster, along with improved technology. Further benefits of this structure were people collaborating in teams, using initiative and increased spontaneous communication while rules, procedures and close supervision were reduced as described in (Tushman, Anderson & OÃ¢â¬â¢Reilly, 1997). Wood et al (2010) describe the matrix structure is common in large organisations wanting to improve customer responsiveness. TruelocalÃ¢â¬â¢s reporting structure utilised this organisational design as part of the change, for example the finance manager reports to the CEO of Truelocal and to the Commercial Director of NDM, however Wood et al (2010) note each organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s structure is unique and there is no single observed design. This change is described by Wood et al (2010) as radical. Radical changes are fundamental reorientations and transformational, often initiated by the arrival of a new CEO. Culture & Performance Change Since the change occurred, TruelocalÃ¢â¬â¢s sales department recorded a growth rate of 15% per full time employee (FTE). Some strategies used were; Ã¢â¬â Performance appraisal review (PAR) Ã¢â¬â staff are asked to grade themselves on their performance and their use of company values of which are discussed by their managers. For example one of the values is Ã¢â¬ËImpactÃ¢â¬â¢ and an employee is asked how much impact they contributed to the organisation since the last performance review and they are required to give examples of this behaviour. These PARs are held quarterly and annually. Reward and remuneration Ã¢â¬â staff are given targets according to their job level and experience with incentives to over achieve. These targets are called Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The personÃ¢â¬â¢s job is broken into task components of which each component consists of a target behaviour that is rewarded. Remuneration is based on the overall percent age of KPI achievement. Ã¢â¬â Recognition Ã¢â¬â employee of the month award was created by encouraging staff to use an online submission for their preferred co-worker who had gone over and above their job requirement displaying one of the company values. In addition the company awards the sales department with the person with the highest dollar value in sales and yearly a larger reward of which one year was a new car. Similarly a newsletter recognises new sales people who achieve early in their job. All of these reinforcements are called extrinsic which are rewards given to someone by another personÃ¢â¬â¢s valued outcome and because they are environmentally impactful are valued in influencing behaviour through the law of effect (Wood et al, 2010). Cultural change can take years according to Wood et al (2010); however effective cultural change strategies can be used to shorten the timeframe. One of which is explained by Oakland & Tanner (2007), it is important to align the culture to support the desired change in behaviour. For example Truelocal needed a professional, customer focused culture which required staff to develop professional skills and behaviour. The result was all departments undertook a full training programme designed to increase awareness in communication, with a focus on questioning and empathy. Conclusion Truelocal is a young company and part of the larger and still relatively new parent organisation, NDM, operating under the global News Corporation. The industry it operates in, digital media is one of the fastest growing and changing environments globally. It changed from a structure and culture of casual, unprofessional work practices managed within a more bureaucratic structure that was under performing to a transformational, high performing, innovative and professional culture that is customer focused. Truelocal achieved its goal of growth, productivity and change in culture, however many staff were lost in the process and not much planning appeared to be in place. It is unclear as to the lack of planning, communication or use of external consultant in the case of radical change that occurred. One assumption might be due to budgetary restrictions as the company has been running at a loss since it started, reporting a loss this year of over one hundred million. Apart from the successful change management strategies that were used by the change agents, in particular the motivational strategies used by nominated change managers, numerous other approaches were identified that may benefit the organisation for managing future changes more effectively. Reference List Carless, S. A. (2005). Person-job fit versus person-organisation fit as predictors of organisational attraction and job acceptance intentions: a longitudinal study. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology. 78 (3), 411-429. Generation Y goes to work (2008, December 30). The Economist (US). Retrieved from http://www. economist. com/business/displaystory. cfm? story_id=12863573 Oakland, J. S. , & Tanner, S. (2007). Successful change management. Total Quality Management, 18 (1-2), 1-19. Tushman, M. L. , Anderson, P. C. & OÃ¢â¬â¢Reilly, C. (1997). Technology cycles, innovation streams and ambidextrous organisations: organisaiton renewal through innovation streams and strategic change. Managing strategic innovation and change. Oxford University Press, NY. 2-23. Wood, J, Zeffane, R. , Fromholtz M. , Wiesner R. , Creed A. , Schermerhorn J. , Hunt J. , & Osborn R. , (2010). Organisational Behaviour, Core concepts & applications. 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, Australia, Ltd. Milton Qld.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
CHAPTER 20 Ã¢â¬â WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT I. II. III. IV. Introduction Progress, 1996-2000 Prospects, 2001-2005 Conclusion LIST OF TABLES Table 20-1 Table 20-2 Table 20-3 Table 20-4 Employment Distribution By Gender Within Sectors, 1995 And 2000 Employment Distribution By Sector And Gender,1995 And 2000 Employment Distribution By Occupation And Gender, 1995 And 2000 R&D Personnel By Gender And Qualification, 1998 Chapter Chapter 20 Women and Development Malaysia Plan Ma laysia Plan Malay sia Plan Malaysia Plan Malaysia Pl an Malaysia Plan Malaysia Plan Ma laysia Plan Malay sia Plan Malaysia Plan Malaysia Pl 8 an Malaysia PlanMalaysia Plan Ma laysia Plan Malay 556 20 I. WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION 20. 01 Women constitute an important pool of resource that can be mobilized to achieve the national development agenda. Through the continuous efforts of the Government in providing an enabling environment during the Seventh Plan period, women continued to participate in and contribut e towards the social and economic development of the country. 20. 02 During the Eighth Plan period, efforts will continue to be undertaken to enhance the role, position and status of women to ensure their participation as equal partners in national development.Women will be provided with the skills and knowledge to cope with the challenges of globalization and fulfil the needs of the knowledge-based economy. II. PROGRESS, 1996-2000 20. 03 During the Seventh Plan period, women continued to make significant contributions in various fields of national development through greater participation in the economy. This was made possible through the further operationalization of the National Policy for Women and its Plan of Action for the Advancement of Women, which included the implementation of gender-sensitive and awareness training programmes.In addition, the removal of legal and institutional constraints that inhibited the participation of women in the development process further facilit ated the involvement of women. Population, Labour Force and Employment 20. 04 Based on the 2000 Population Census, about 48. 9 per cent or 11. 4 million of the total population were women. The age-structure of the female Chapter 20 557 Malaysia Plan Ma laysia Plan Malay 8 sia Plan Malaysia Plan Malaysia Pl an Malaysia Plan Malaysia Plan Ma population was similar to that of the male, with 52. 4 per cent of the female population in the age-group 24 years and below.The Census also revealed that due to the improved female life expectancy, the proportion of the female population in the 65 to 74 years age-group increased from 3. 0 per cent in 1991 to 4. 3 per cent in 2000. 20. 05 Although 48 per cent of women were in the working age population of 15-64 years, they only accounted for a third of the labour force. Female labour force participation registered an increase, from 43. 5 per cent in 1995 to 45. 8 per cent in 1997, but declined to 44 per cent in 1998 due to the economic downturn. W ith the economic recovery, this rate subsequently increased to 44. per cent in 2000. 20. 06 Female employment in the mining and quarrying sector experienced the largest decline of 4. 9 per cent, between 1995 and 2000, followed by the agriculture, forestry, livestock and fishing sector, which recorded a decline of 1. 8 per cent during the same period, as shown in Table 20-1. Various efforts were undertaken to assist these women to re-enter the job market, including the implementation of training programmes to encourage them to venture into small businesses as well as retraining, and the identification and placement of these women in alternative jobs. 0. 07 Overall, the manufacturing sector absorbed the largest share of employed women accounting for 27. 3 per cent in 2000, consistent with the expanding opportunities in the sector. Another sector that recorded high female employment is the wholesale and retail trade, hotel and restaurants, as shown in Table 20-2. 20. 08 Improvements we re recorded in the occupational structure, with more women moving into higher-paying occupations during the Plan period. The proportion of women in the professional and technical category increased from 12. 7 per cent in 1995 to 13. per cent in 2000, while the proportion of women in the administrative and managerial category recorded an increase of 0. 4 per cent during the same period, as shown in Table 20-3. The share of women employed as agriculture workers declined from 16. 6 per cent in 1995 to 14. 8 per cent in 2000, consistent with the overall decline in total employment in the sector. Women were mainly employed as production and related workers, which accounted for 22. 6 per cent of total female employment in 2000. 558 TABLE 20-1 EMPLOYMENT DISTRIBUTION BY GENDER WITHIN SECTORS, 1995 AND 2000 (%) 1995 2000Sector Male Female Male Female Agriculture, Forestry, Livestock & Fishing 71. 4 28. 6 73. 2 26. 8 Mining & Quarrying 82. 1 17. 9 87. 0 13. 0 Manufacturing 57. 2 42. 8 58. 9 41. 1 Construction 93. 5 6. 5 94. 0 6. 0 Electricity, Gas & Water 90. 4 9. 6 90. 5 9. 5 Transport, Storage & Communications 87. 9 12. 1 86. 9 13. 1 Wholesale & Retail Trade, Hotel & Restaurants 61. 3 38. 7 60. 7 39. 3 Finance, Insurance, Real Estate & Business Services 60. 1 39. 9 60. 1 39. 9 Other Services 60. 0 40. 0 54. 7 45. 3 66. 1 33. 9 65. 5 34. 5 Total TABLE 20-2 EMPLOYMENT DISTRIBUTION BY SECTOR AND GENDER, 995 AND 2000 (%) 1995 2000 Sector Male Female Male Female 21. 6 16. 9 20. 2 14. 1 0. 5 0. 2 0. 4 0. 1 Manufacturing 20. 2 29. 4 20. 6 27. 3 Construction 11. 3 1. 5 12. 1 1. 5 0. 9 0. 2 0. 7 0. 1 Agriculture, Forestry, Livestock & Fishing Mining & Quarrying Electricity, Gas & Water Transport, Storage & Communications 6. 2 Finance, Insurance, Real Estate & Business Services 1. 7 6. 1 1. 7 16. 6 Wholesale & Retail Trade, Hotel & Restaurants 20. 5 18. 1 22. 3 4. 5 5. 7 17. 2 27. 1 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 Chapter 20 559 5. 6 24. 0 100. 0 Total 4. 3 18. 4 Other ServicesMalaysia P lan Ma laysia Plan Malay 8 sia Plan Malaysia Plan Malaysia Pl an Malaysia Plan Malaysia Plan Ma TABLE 20-3 EMPLOYMENT DISTRIBUTION BY OCCUPATION AND GENDER, 1995 AND 2000 (%) 1995 2000 Occupation Category Male Female Male Female Professional, Technical & Related Workers 8. 4 12. 7 8. 9 13. 5 Administrative & Managerial Workers 3. 9 1. 8 4. 7 2. 2 Clerical & Related Workers 7. 5 17. 5 7. 1 17. 5 10. 5 11. 6 11. 1 12. 1 9. 4 14. 4 9. 5 17. 4 Agriculture Workers 21. 9 16. 6 20. 4 14. 8 Production & Related Workers 38. 3 25. 4 38. 4 22. 6 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. Sales & Related Workers Service Workers Total 20. 09 Various measures were undertaken to improve female participation in the labour market. The Employment Act 1955 was amended in 1998, which among others, provided for flexible working hours and empowered the Minister of Human Resources to make rules on statutory benefits to be paid to part-time workers proportionate to that of full-time employees. This amendment permitted wome n, especially housewives, to be gainfully employed in part-time employment, while allowing them the flexibility to meet their family obligations.In an effort to allow women in the public sector to care for their newborn and to encourage breastfeeding, as of May 1998, maternity leave up to 60 days was allowed for a maximum of up to five children. In addition, provisions for tax deductions were provided to employers for the establishment of child-care centres near or at the workplace. Employers were also encouraged to provide facilities such as proper housing, transport and healthcare for the benefit of rural migrants, the majority of whom were women. Educational Attainment 20. 0 An important factor that contributed towards the social and economic advancement of women was the huge investments in educational facilities 560 accompanied by the provision of equal access to educational opportunities. Female primary and secondary school enrolment in local public institutions reflected the g ender ratio in the country. At the primary and secondary levels, enrolment of female students was about half of the total enrolment, while at the upper secondary level, female students accounted for about 66 per cent of total enrolment in 2000.Intake of female students into public universities expanded significantly from 50 per cent in 1995 to 55 per cent in 2000. 20. 11 With regard to preference for courses, female dominance in the arts streams continued to be prevalent accounting for 65 per cent of total enrolment in the arts and humanities courses in 2000. Females also made further inroads into science and technical courses. Female enrolment in the sciences in institutions of higher learning accounted for 60 per cent, while in the technical field it was 30 per cent in 2000.Skills and Entrepreneur Development 20. 12 Specific skills and entrepreneur training programmes were implemented to enable women to improve themselves and take advantage of the opportunities in the job market. In this regard, courses in areas such as business, organizational and financial management were implemented. Skills training programmes provided by the Centre for Instructor and Advanced Skills Training were expanded, resulting in an increase of 19. 4 per cent in the female enrolment between 1995 and 2000. 20. 3 With improved literacy and the changing needs of the rural community, courses that contributed towards the involvement of women in income-generating activities were also undertaken. Towards this end, extension services in the form of the provision of equipment, initial capital grants, advisory services and training in areas such as product processing, as well as leadership and motivation courses were conducted. 20. 14 Measures were undertaken to facilitate the involvement of women in business through the provision of easy access to capital. The Women Entrepreneurs Fund was established in 1998 with an allocation of RM10 million.A total of 12 projects amounting to RM9. 5 milli on was approved under the Fund. Through the Small Entrepreneur Fund, a total of about 6,000 women entrepreneurs obtained loans amounting to RM65 million. Chapter 20 561 Malaysia Plan Ma laysia Plan Malay 8 sia Plan Malaysia Plan Malaysia Pl an Malaysia Plan Malaysia Plan Ma 20. 15 Various women entrepreneur and industry associations were formed, generally to serve as a platform for women entrepreneurs to establish networks and exchange information and experiences as well as to conduct training programmes, seminars, and workshops on motivation, leadership and entrepreneur development.The WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Institute of Management (WIM) offered skills training courses, particularly in the area of entrepreneurship as well as operated an on-line network called WIMNET that provided database search facilities to businesswomen around the world. In addition, the Institute of WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Advancement, the Federation of Women Entrepreneurs Association and the Association for Bumiputera Women En trepreneurs conducted courses and seminars in skills and entrepreneur development.A total of about 10,000 women benefited from these courses. Research and Development 20. 16 Women were actively involved in research and development activities during the Plan period. According to the 1998 National Survey of Research and Development, which covered research undertaken by government research institutions, institutions of higher learning and the private sector, women accounted for about a third of the total number of researchers with masters and bachelor degree qualifications, as shown in Table 20-4.In terms of research fields in the public sector, females were predominantly found in the medical and health and information sectors. TABLE 20-4 R&D PERSONNEL BY GENDER AND QUALIFICATION, 1998 (%) Phd Masters Bachelor Non-Degree Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female GRI1 29. 2 8. 0 38. 0 16. 4 14. 6 8. 5 11. 8 9. 2 2 39. 8 15. 0 15. 0 14. 0 9. 7 9. 0 14. 0 19. 6 7. 0 1. 0 13. 0 3. 6 43. 2 15. 0 36. 8 8. 6 76. 0 24. 0 66. 0 34. 0 67. 5 32. 5 62. 6 37. 4 IHL Private Sector Total Notes: 1 Refers to Government Research Institutions 2Refers to Institutions of Higher Learning 562 Health Status 20. 17 Women were equal recipients of the benefits of developments in the health sector. As such, the health status of women continued to register improvements during the Plan period. The average female life expectancy continued to improve from 74 years in 1995 to 74. 7 years in 2000 compared with 69. 3 years and 69. 9 years, respectively, for males. The maternal mortality rate, which is an indicator of the health status of women, remained low at 0. 2 per 1,000 live births during the Plan period. 20. 8 With the introduction of the Family Health Programme in 1996, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health was given emphasis from two perspectives, namely, the health of the family comprising maternal and child health, immunization, family planning, early detection of cancers and nutrition, as well as diseases affecting women with specific attention to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The maternal and child health programme, aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, improving prenatal and antenatal healthcare and providing health and utrition education continued to be implemented. In addition, increased accessibility to safe delivery services contributed towards the achievement of a satisfactory maternal mortality rate. As a result, deliveries in the public sector health facilities increased from 85. 1 per cent in 1985 to 95. 3 per cent in 1999. Concerted efforts were also undertaken to widen the coverage of antenatal health care services resulting in 72 per cent of pregnant women having access to such services.The Government introduced the Nutrition Rehabilitation Programme for Pregnant Mothers in 1997 to further improve the health status of women through the provision of adequate nutrition, particularly women in t he low-income group. 20. 19 With longer life expectancy and to ensure that women are healthy and remain healthy in their old age, health education programmes, seminars and workshops on healthy lifestyles, nutrition and the importance of regular medical examinations were introduced by the public and private sectors.In view of the fact that women, especially young women, are in the high-risk category in terms of vulnerability to AIDS, greater emphasis was given towards providing information on AIDS awareness and education. Despite these efforts, the percentage of women with HIV infection increased from 4. 3 per cent in 1995 to 5. 1 per cent in 1999. A programme, specifically for pregnant mothers infected with HIV, was also introduced at all antenatal clinics. Chapter 20 563 Malaysia Plan Ma laysia Plan Malay 8 sia Plan Malaysia Plan Malaysia Pl an Malaysia Plan Malaysia Plan MaPoverty among Female-headed Households 20. 20 Recognizing that increasing poverty among women is a world-wide phenomenon, various efforts were undertaken by the Government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to reduce the incidence of poverty among women. These included the provision of micro-credit facilities to about 22,850 women through Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia to facilitate their involvement in small businesses and training programmes to assist single mothers to obtain employment. Despite these efforts, the incidence of poverty among female-headed households increased from 15. per cent or 585,688 households in 1997 to 16. 1 per cent or 588,554 households in 1999. Supportive Legislation 20. 21 During the period, efforts to further enhance the status of women continued to be undertaken. Existing regulations were reviewed and new ones enacted to protect the rights and dignity of women in both public and private life. In recognition of the importance of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to the labour force, the amendment of the Employment Act 1955 encouraged more women to join the labour for ce.With the increased participation of women in the labour force, the existence of a healthy working environment is crucial. Towards this end, in 1999 the Government introduced a code of ethics for the prevention of sexual harassment at the workplace. This code, although applicable to both men and women, contains specific provisions to protect women in the workplace. In addition, women taxpayers, whose husbands had no taxable income, were provided taxable relief similar to that available to a male taxpayer whose wife had no taxable income. 20. 2 To enhance the capability and capacity of syariah courts, including in the handling of issues pertaining to Muslim women, the Government initiated a review of the organization of syariah courts in the country. Consequently, the Department of Syariah Judiciary was established in 1997, among others, aimed at ensuring uniformity among states in the judgement of cases pertaining to Islamic Family Law. During the period, five states, namely, Mela ka, Negeri Sembilan, Perlis, Pulau Pinang and Selangor as well as the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur implemented the Islamic Family Law.With this implementation, Muslim women were provided with better protection. 564 20. 23 Various efforts were undertaken to further protect the rights and dignity of women. The Women and Girls Protection Act 1973 and the Child Protection Act 1991 were reviewed and streamlined into the Child Act 2000. In addition, recognizing the role of women in caring for their families, the Guardianship of Infants Act 1961 was amended in 1999 to allow joint guardianship of children in matters relating to immigration and registration.In implementing this amendment, the Government, in 2000, also allowed mothers to sign all documents involving their underage children. National Machinery for the Advancement of Women 20. 24 The national machinery for the advancement of women in Malaysia comprises the Government, the private sector and NGOs, working in tandem towards the common objective of improving the status of women. Recognizing the need to further enhance the effectiveness of the national machinery, the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Affairs Department at the Ministry of National Unity and Social Development was transferred to the Prime MinisterÃ¢â¬â¢s Department in 1999.To enable more effective implementation of the National Policy for Women, the Plan of Action for the Advancement of Women was introduced to all public and private sector agencies to be used as a guide in the planning and implementation of development programmes. In addition, gender sensitization training programmes continued to be implemented in the public sector and similar programmes were initiated in the private sector. 20. 5 During the period, the National Advisory Council on the Integration of Women in Development (NACIWID) continued to function as the coordinating, consultative and advisory body on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s affairs by highlighting to the Government issues and concerns pertain ing to women. Measures were also undertaken to institute links with the grassroot through the establishment of women service centres at the state level and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s affairs consultative committees at the state and district levels.During the Plan period, centres were established in the States of Kedah, Kelantan, Pahang, Sabah and Selangor, which provided various services such as counselling, legal assistance and temporary shelter for women in need. The consultative committees monitored the implementation and impact of programmes and projects for women and provided the necessary feedback for improved project formulation and implementation. 20. 26 NGOs played an important role in complementing the efforts of the Government in advancing the status of women.In addition to organizing courses in family health, legal literacy, entrepreneurial development and parenting skills, Chapter 20 565 Malaysia Plan Ma laysia Plan Malay 8 sia Plan Malaysia Plan Malaysia Pl an Malaysia Plan Malays ia Plan Ma NGOs also implemented various activities to increase the knowledge and skills of women in the vocational and technical fields. Specific programmes were also introduced to assist single mothers in obtaining employment and caring for their families. NGOs also played the catalytic role in highlighting issues to further improve the status and rights of women.III. PROSPECTS, 2001-2005 20. 27 During the Eighth Plan period, efforts will continue to be undertaken to further enhance the role, position and responsibilities of women so as to increase their participation and involvement in the social and economic life of the country. In implementing the Plan of Action for the Advancement of Women, the Government will continue to ensure that strategies and programmes implemented are consistent with Malaysian values, religious beliefs and cultural norms. 20. 8 Taking cognizance of the changes in the global environment and the need to adjust to these changes, efforts will be undertaken to provide women with the skills and knowledge to cope with the twin responsibilities of family and career. Towards this end, the strategic thrusts for the future advancement of women will be: t increasing female participation in the labour market; t providing more education and training opportunities for women to meet the demands of the knowledge-based economy and improve their upward mobility in the labour market; t enhancing womenÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in business; reviewing laws and regulations that inhibit the advancement of women; t improving further the health status of women; t reducing the incidence of poverty among female-headed households; t strengthening research activities to increase participation of women in development and enhance their well-being; and t strengthening the national machinery and the institutional capacity for the advancement of women. 566 Increasing Female Participation in the Labour Force 20. 29 Although women account for nearly half of the working ag e population, their participation in the labour force is relatively low.Various efforts will be undertaken to mobilize this available pool of resource, thus increasing the supply of labour and contributing towards enhancing the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s output. The private sector, being the largest employer, will be further encouraged to introduce the necessary support facilities such as establishing child-care centres as well as providing transportation and housing facilities for their women employees. In addition, the Employment Act 1955 will be amended to include new and flexible working arrangements such as teleworking, part-time work and job sharing, to enable women to integrate career with household duties.Providing More Education and Training Opportunities 20. 30 Women will be provided with more education and training opportunities to meet the demands of the knowledge-based economy as well as to facilitate their upward mobility into higher-paying occupations. To encourage more women to pursue non-traditional fields of study such as science, engineering and vocational and technical education, career counselling programmes will be implemented to provide information and instill greater awareness among female students and parents regarding career opportunities in the professional and technical fields. 0. 31 With the need to increase knowledge and skills as well as move towards higher capital intensity, there will be a greater demand for highly and multiskilled workers. Women will thus be provided with more training opportunities to acquire new and advanced skills relevant to the needs of the industry. In addition, in response to the rapid changes in technology that requires constant upgrading of skills, women will be provided with increased opportunities for retraining.The private sector will also be encouraged to complement the efforts of the Government in providing more skills training opportunities for women, including in new technologies. 20. 32 Efforts will be u ndertaken to improve womenÃ¢â¬â¢s access to information and communications technology (ICT). Formal and non-formal training in areas such as computer literacy and applications of ICT will be conducted jointly by the Government and NGOs, with special emphasis given to rural women. In addition, to enhance the effectiveness of the training programmes, efforts will be taken to ensure that software development is gender sensitive.Chapter 20 567 Malaysia Plan Ma laysia Plan Malay 8 sia Plan Malaysia Plan Malaysia Pl an Malaysia Plan Malaysia Plan Ma Enhancing WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Involvement in Business 20. 33 Efforts to enhance womenÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in business will continue to be undertaken. Training in business-related areas such as marketing, accounting, budgeting and planning will be implemented by the Government and NGOs. Programmes will be implemented to enable women entrepreneurs to be more competitive in terms of production, product quality and design as well as packaging and la belling. In addition, the utilization of ICT in business will be emphasized.The Government will also continue to provide funds under the Women Entrepreneurs Fund to enable more women to participate in business. Through the implementation of gender sensitive strategies, more opportunities will be provided to women to increase their participation and involvement in business ventures. Reviewing Laws and Regulations 20. 34 Existing laws and regulations will be reviewed to eliminate provisions that discriminate or have adverse effects on women. Legislation that will be reviewed includes those pertaining to family law and the distribution of property for non-Muslims.The Government will study the feasibility of establishing family courts with a view towards ensuring that issues pertaining to the family are discussed and decisions made in a more conducive environment. Efforts will also be undertaken to ensure the effective enforcement and speedy implementation of court decisions, including decisions of syariah courts, so as to provide for the protection and welfare of women. In addition, steps will continue to be taken to ensure the implementation of Islamic Family Law in the remaining states. Improving the Health Status 20. 5 Emphasis will continue to be given to promoting womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health and that of their families. Through the family health programme, special attention will be given to HIV and sexually-transmitted infection prevention, family planning, as well as the identification of factors causing non-communicable diseases such as cancers, mental illnesses and cardiovascular diseases. In view of the fact that women have longer life expectancy and to ensure that women remain healthy in their old age, specific health education programmes including the promotion of healthy lifestyles and nutrition will continue to be implemented. 68 20. 36 Recognizing the peculiarities of illnesses confronting women, such as osteoporosis and those related to reproductive healt h, and in an effort to provide higher quality healthcare for women, the Government will establish a special hospital for women. This hospital will be the national referral centre for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health and well-being. In addition, research on various aspects of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health will be undertaken, with emphasis on biomedical, socio-behavioural and clinical research. Reducing the Incidence of Poverty among Female-headed Households 20. 7 In view of the increasing number of female-headed households and the rising incidence of poverty among them, efforts will be undertaken to ensure that these women have the capacity and capability to care for their families. Towards this end, research on the difficulties faced by women as head of households as well as the differing impacts of poverty on women and men will be undertaken to assist in the development of relevant programmes and projects. A special programme aimed at reducing the incidence of poverty among female-headed households w ill also be formulated to improve their quality of life as well as that of their families.Strengthening Research Activities 20. 38 During the Plan period, emphasis will be given to strengthening research in specific areas that will contribute towards increasing the participation of women in national development and enhancing their well-being. Research will be undertaken in areas such as the involvement of women in science and technology and ICT, the welfare of women in the informal sector, the role and status of women in the workplace, mobility of women in the labour force and remunerations received, women and mental health, and difficulties faced by women as head of households.Findings from these activities will assist in the formulation of policies and programmes that will further promote the advancement of women. Strengthening the National Machinery and the Institutional Capacity 20. 39 The establishment of the Ministry for Women and Family Development will provide greater focus on issues relating to women as well as ensure the effective implementation and coordination of programmes for women and families. Chapter 20 569 Malaysia Plan Ma laysia Plan Malay 8 sia Plan Malaysia Plan Malaysia Pl an Malaysia Plan Malaysia Plan MaConsistent with the goals of the National Policy for Women, efforts will be undertaken to improve and strengthen the national machinery for the advancement of women. Towards this end, measures will be instituted to ensure greater coordination and collaboration in the implementation of activities for women. In addition, links with the grassroots will continue to be strengthened with the establishment of women service centres in the remaining 10 states. 20. 40 During the Plan period, various mechanisms will be instituted to enable women to participate in decision-making processes at all levels.This is to ensure the incorporation of the needs of women in the formulation of policies and the development of strategies and programmes for the fu rther advancement of women. Gender analysis training and sensitization for policy-makers and planners and programme implementors will continue to be implemented in the public and private sectors. Greater efforts will also be undertaken to ensure the systematic collection and compilation of gender disaggregated data to facilitate analysis, create awareness and formulate appropriate and effective follow-up action on gender issues. IV. CONCLUSION 0. 41 With the provision of equal access to healthcare as well as educational and training programmes and improved employment opportunities, women made advancements in various fields of development. During the Eighth Plan period, efforts will continue to further enhance the status of women as equal partners in development. Towards this end, the Government will provide the enabling environment and supportive mechanisms, including the implementation of gender sensitive programmes, to enable women to reach their full potential in the social and e conomic fields of development. 570
Friday, November 8, 2019
over population essays The population of our planet will quickly reach a point where there will not be adequate amount of resources to support life on Earth. Population control must be enforced to avoid such a catastrophic occurrence. Many economic, social and environmental problems are either affiliated with or are increased due to overpopulation. With an exponentially increasing world population, the problems created by overpopulation grow correspondingly. In order to stabilize the massive population, the world must work together to maintain population stability. One of the main reasons is due to the fact that Man treats his surroundings, for example like his land, his environment, his atmosphere, his waters and other life forms as merely objects. Man utilizes, destroys and discards them when hes finish. If Man does not respect his planet, there will be nothing left except for a dead, barren wasteland. We must act soon or better yet, now. The earth does not have enough resources to supply the current enormous population growth. In many areas, there is simply not enough food to feed the growing populations. 150 million children in the world suffer from poor health due to food shortages. Alongside with food, there is another resource that cannot keep up with the increasing population, that is water. Our supply of fresh water is very essential to life and limited. Eventhough, our earth is covered with 2/3 of water and 1/3 land, converting salt water to fresh water can be expensive. In addition to depleting resources, overpopulation increases environmental problems. Polltion is an environmental problem whose magnitude is increased by overpopulation. With more drivers on the road, more electricity consumed, more trash, and depleting trees, the environment problems that exist will exponentially increase. But as more people such as ourselves pollute, massive problems occurs. Pollution is magnified in developing nations. Unfortu...